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GLAMIS CASTLE ITS ORIGIN AND HISTORY WITH A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE EARLY CHURCH OF THE PARISH BY THE REVEREND JOHN STIRTON, C.V.O., D.D., F.S.A.(Scot.) Senior Minister of Crathie and Chaplain to the King. Author of "GLAMIS, A PARISH HISTORY", "PASTIME PAPERS", "A DAY THAT IS DEAD", "THE CELTIC CHURCH AND THE INFLUENCE OF THE EAST", "CRATHIE AND BRAEMAR, A HISTORY OF THE UNITED PARISH", "BALMORAL IN FORMER TIMES", "THE SPANISH MATCH", Etc, Etc. WITH ILLUSTRATIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS AND DRAWINGS. <<BOWES-LYON SHIELD>> FORFAR: W. SHEPHERD, CASTLE STREET. 1938 ===================================================== <<CROWN>> Dedicated by Special Permission to Her Majesty the Queen. FOREWORD. The writer, having acquired new material supplementary to his "History of the Parish, Castle, and Church of Glamis", has endeavoured to arrange the historical data at his disposal in such a manner as to give a brief and yet connected account as far as it was possible, of a subject which must appeal to all lovers of their nation's Past. In compiling a work of this kind, it is necessary to respect and to possess those qualities of a "literary and historical conscience," which the choleric Sir Arthur Wardour dreaded and despised in his friend the laird of Monkbarns, as "a pettifogging intimacy with dates, names, and trifling matters of fact, and a tiresome and frivolous accuracy of memory." In Glamis, the Past overshadows the Present. The memories of a thousand years darken and obscure the forward progressive tendencies, which nevertheless exist, and are as aggressively active as they are in any rural district; only it is more difficult to see them in their just and proper proportions. The whole atmosphere seems to breathe so unmistakably of the Past. The village, quaint and severe, characteristically Scottish in general appearance - many houses dating from the middle of the eighteenth century and older, the Kirk, the Castle, even the distant line of hills, so suggestive of the Everlasting, all speak of an order of things long since established, and apart from that of a Present with which it would seem to have little sympathy. Here the crowded memories, hallowed by Time, seem to acquire a renewed sanctity as years roll on. We linger fondly over them, "Strong Tradition binding fast with bands of gold." What the next phase may be who can foretell? One thing only lasts and has always been, the charm of natural beauty that rests on the hills and woods of Glamis, and on the wide stretching Strath they look out upon, and on the quiet stream, which like a silver ribbon glances in the sunlight through the willows on its banks, till it becomes one of the great rivers that lose themselves in the tides of the mighty deep. The writer is especially grateful to the Queen for graciously permitting the work to be dedicated to Her Majesty, and to the Earl and Countess of Strathmore and the Lady Maud Bowes-Lyon for the photographs which they so kindly presented for reproduction in the volume. In compiling the History of St. Fergus, which appears in the second part of the work, the writer was deeply indebted to the Rev. A. B. Scott, D.D., Helmsdale, who rendered him help readily and un-grudgingly, and made information available which otherwise he would have been unable to acquire. The writer's thanks are also due to the following helpers, whose assistance he gratefully acknowledges: - The late Duke of Devonshire, for leave to reproduce the portraits of King James V. and Mary of Lorraine; Miss Ralston, Glamis House, who kindly lent a photograph for reproduction; Messrs. Lafayette Ltd., Glasgow, who granted permission to reproduce the photographs of the Queen and the Honourable David Bowes-Lyon, of which they have the copyright; Mr. Paul Laib, South Kensington, London, who gave the writer leave to reproduce the photographs of the Earl and Countess of Strathmore; Messrs. Valentine & Sons Ltd., Art Publishers, Dundee, for the use of colour blocks of the Main Doorway, Glamis Castle, of the South Gateway, and of the Autumn Garden; Messrs. Alexander Maclehose & Co., Bloomsbury Street, London, WC1, for the loan of the block of the photograph of Glamis Castle by the Honourable Mountstuart Elphinstone, reproduced from Sir John Stirling-Maxwell's volume "Shrines and Homes of Scotland"; Laing's Studios, East High Street, Forfar, for allowing the photographs of the Drawing-Room, Glamis Castle, and the North Gateway to be reproduced; Mr. J. N. Strachan, Forfar, for the use of the photograph of the Well of St. Fergus; The Society of Antiquaries for lending the blocks of the Glamis Manse Stone; and Mrs. Stirton for the sketch of the Dutch Garden and the drawings of Restenneth. Colinton, June 1938. CONTENTS. I - Glamis Castle, -17- Legend of its origin; Oldest portion of present Castle dating from fifteenth century; Occupied by James V. and Mary of Lorraine; Visit of Queen Mary in 1562; Castle remodelled by Patrick, ninth Lord Glamis; Scheme of renovation continued by Earl John; Earl Patrick; Restoration, 1670-1689; Visit of Prince James, Chevalier de St. George in 1716; Castle described by an anonymous writer in 1723; Scene at Castle in 1728 after the death of Earl Charles; Duke of Cumberland's visit in 1746; The Poet Gray's description of the Castle in 1765; Captain Grose at Glamis; Sir Walter Scott spends a night at Glamis Castle in 1793; His description and impressions; Alterations on the Castle; The Secret Chamber; Legend regarding it; The mystery never revealed; General description of the Castle at the present day; The Autumn Garden made by Earl Claude; Evolved and designed by Countess Cecilia; Laid out by Glamis workmen; The work begun in 1907 and completed in 1910; Carried out entirely by residents in Glamis; Garden laid out by Thomas Wilson, head gardener, assisted by David Waterston, Clerk of Works. II - The Early Church of Glamis, -81- Celtic Period; St. Fergus; Connection with Restenneth; William the Lion granted Church to the Abbey of Arbroath in 1178; A Vicarage in Diocese of St. Andrews; Church dedicated in 1242 by Bishop David of St. Andrews to St. Fergus, the patron saint; Isabella Ogilvy wife of Patrick, First Lord Glamis, "built the ille in the Kirk of Glamis" after the death of her husband in 1459; On 12th October 1487, John, Third Lord Glamis, granted a mortification of an annual rent of twelve merks, to the altar of St. Thomas, Martyr in the Parish Church; In 1492, the same Lord mortified to the Chapel of the Holy Trinity, in the Parish Church, two acres and a toft of land in the barony of 'Glammiss' for the benefit of the soul of Elizabeth Scrymgeour, his wife; John, Seventh Lord 'Glammis', purchased the whole teinds from Cardinal Beaton, Commendator of Arbroath; Robert Boyd, first minister after the Reformation; His successors; Earl Patrick's improvements; Church seated with pews, 1695; Mr John Balvaird; Jacobite Rising; Rev. Dr. James Lyon; Mrs.Lyon; The old Church demolished and the new one built in 1792. III - Appendices, -139- I - Notes on Easter-Denoon. II-Drumgley. III - Touch-Piece of the Chevalier de St. George. IV - Further Note on Queen Mary's Watch. V - King James and Glamis Castle. VI-The "Place of Glammiss (Glamis Castle) in the Jacobite Rising. List of Subcribers, -173- ILLUSTRATIONS. Glamis Castle, Frontispiece ON, OR FACING, PAGE The Crypt, 18 Mary, Queen of Scots, 20 King James V. and Queen Mary of Lorraine, 22 Patrick, 1st Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, 24 Helen, Countess of Strathmore, 26 Glamis Castle in 1686 (1), 28 Glamis Castle in 1686 (2), 28 The North Gateway, 30 The Touch-Piece of Chevalier de St. George, 32 Glamis Castle in 1730, 34 Glamis Castle in 1790, 34 The Main Doorway, 36 The Lion of Glamis, 38 The Great Hall, 40 The Drawing-Room, 42 The Queen in the year 1909, 44 The Queen and the Honourable David Bowes-Lyon in 1909, 46 Sword of Prince James, 48 Claverhouse's Coat, 48 The South Gateway, 54 The Earl of Strathmore, G.C.V.O., 58 The Countess of Strathmore, G.C.V.O., 60 John Graham of Claverhouse, 62 Patrick, ninth Lord Glamis, 64 George Boswell, 64 The Chapel, 66 Plan of Glamis Castle, 70 The Great Sun-Dial, 70 The Autumn Garden (1), 72 The Dutch Garden, 75 The Autumn Garden (2), 76 The Well of St. Fergus, 84 The Manse Stone (obverse), 90 The Manse Stone (reverse), 91 South Doorway of Tower of Restenneth, 97 Archway in East Wall of Tower, 98 The Chantry Chapel, 104 The Sacrament House, 104 Old Communion Cup, 136 The 'Poores' Box, 136 <<Digital graphic files of the illustrations are available.>> GLAMIS CASTLE "This Castle hath a pleasant seat; the air Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself Unto our gentle senses." Shakespeare. T HERE is probably no Castle in Scotland more historically interesting than that of Glamis. A weird fascination seems to encircle the old battlements and towers, and the lover of ancient landmarks experiences a thrill of pleasure as he approaches the precincts of this lordly domain, and finds to his delight that it is not only entire, but in splendid order and condition. Originally there were four Castles in the parish: - Denoon, Cossins, Glen Ogilvy, and Glamis. No vestiges, however, of the first three remain. Glamis alone is left to tell the tale of other days. A legend frequently heard in the parish is to the effect that the "Fiery Pans " or summit of Hunter's Hill1, so called from its being the place where beacon fires were lighted, was the site upon which it was 1. The early Kings used to engage in the pleasures of hunting on this hill. At the foot of it there is a fine spring of water still called the King's Well." 17 intended the Castle should be built. The builders set to work, but whatever progress was made during the day in the task of construction it was rudely retarded by night. Certain "little folks," the legend held, were responsible for this action, until a sign came to the builders to guide them. A voice was heard proclaiming, "Build the Castle in a bog where 'twill neither shak nor shog." So the Castle was erected forthwith upon its present site. Needless to say, no written confirmation of the legend exists, but it is known for certain that there was a royal residence at Glamis from a very remote period - a Castle "whose birth, tradition notes not." From the eleventh to the fourteenth century the King and Court from time to time lived there. A Castle there must of course have been, but it probably was one of earthwork with timber erection inside as castles were not built of stone in Scotland until the thirteenth century, and those that date from that period such as Kincardine, Kildrummie, Bothwell, Kinclaven, Castle Roy, Inverlochy, were so fine and elaborate, that had Glamis been of the same date, some remains of it would likely have been left, as such castles were not easily cast aside. There may have been several towers or peel-houses in succession upon the same site, and the probability is that such had indeed been the case. The oldest portion of the present Castle - the crypt and lower part of the great central tower - is pronounced by experts to date from the fifteenth century. In a manuscript of the year 1631 it is stated that the first Lady Glamis, "in her widdow- 18 -head finished the old house of Glams."1 The Lord Glamis, her husband, died in 1459, and she herself in 1484, so the natural inference is that the Castle had been built partly in the early years of the fifteenth century, and completed in the latter, and that the ancient part of the present building is a remnant of the Castle completed by Lady Glamis. Although no description of it as it then, and for the next hundred years, appeared, is extant, it may well he supposed to have been as commodious and imposing as the times required, especially when the fact is taken into consideration that a monarch and his retinue lived there very frequently for some years. King James V., with his Queen, Mary of Lorraine, their two sons2 and court, occupied it during the forfeiture of the Lyon family. He retained the Castle and Barony of Glamis with some other portions of the estates in his own possession. 1. Lady Glamis also built the aisle at the Church of Glamis, now called the Mortuary or Chantry Chapel, beneath which is situated the burial vault of the Strathmore family. This aisle is of beautiful fifteenth century Gothic, and contains the altar-shaped tomb of the first Lord Glamis, who died, as mentioned above, in 1459. For the House of Strathmore this Chapel has a thousand sacred memories, and it must be guarded and preserved with jealous care. The vault contains all that is mortal of the Great Chancellor of Scotland, the "Guid, learned nobleman," who was so cruelly done to death in the prime of his life and work in the streets of Stirling in 1577 of that young Earl, "the very flower of Jacobite chivalry," who gave his soul to God on the bloody field of Sheriffmuir in 1715 and of that noble Earl, the " Beau-Ideal of manly beauty," who died in 1776, whom a contemporary described as "In person extremely elegant and in manner most graceful; affable, without meanness, noble, without haughtiness; a zealous friend and most affectionate parent." To his ability as a scholar the great Lord Chesterfield and the poet Gray have given testimony. 2. They both died in infancy. Their sister, born later, in 1547, was Mary, afterwards Queen of Scotland. 19 He held a full court at Glamis from 1538 to 1542, and there are many entries in the Lord Treasurer's accounts for sums disbursed for its maintenance. He did not scruple even to lay hands on the personal valuables of the family. In the Exchequer Rolls there is a notice of the twelve great silver flagons in the Castle, each of seven pounds weight, being melted down to supply silver for the mint1. Certainly in his treatment of the noble family of Lyon, the "King of the Commons" would seem to have lost his customary sense of justice and fair-play, not to speak of his "bonhomie" and kindness of heart. During his stay at Glamis many royal documents and charters were dated from the Castle2. He was at Glamis in the "Feast of St. Andrew" 1538, in January and September 1539, in the autumn and winter of 1540, in the autumn of 1541, and in the spring of 1542. The struggle with the "auld enemy" England, however, prevented his return. He died after the disastrous rout of Solway Moss, at Falkland 1. The expenses also appear of hawks, dogs, horses, and their attendants, and payments to surgeons, bards, shepherds, fishermen, and gardeners, for even four centuries ago the gardens of Glamis were famous." (see "Scots Peerage") 2. King James stayed at Glamis Castle on 22nd September, 16th and 20th October, and 17th to 20th December 1537 (Liber Emptorum, fols. 21, 35, and 36). The expense of his visit in September and October was £43,8s. 1d. over and above 54 capons, 90 poultry, and 24 geese of the Kain of Glamis. He spent St. Andrew's Day at Glamis in 1538, for the Exchequer Rolls (XVII., p.256) contains a note of fodder supplied for his horses (ad pabulum equorurn domini regis residentis upud Glammys circa festum Andree). He was back again in September of the following year 1539, and also in the same month of 1540 (Treasurer's Accounts, VII., pp. 201-262) and between September 1540 and March 1541. Evidently the Queen (Mary of Lorraine) and he were constantly at Glamis during 1540-41. The Register of the Great Seal shows that charters were granted at Glamis, on 15th September, by the King, and 14th October 1540, 26th October 1541, 11th and 26th February 1541-1542; and the Register of the Privy Seal shows that on 22nd October 1537, 11th March 1537-38, 28th November 1538, 15th and 24th September and 14th October 1540, 3rd and 26th October, 10th and 18th December 1541, 9th, 10th, 11th, 16th, and 26th February 1541-42, Writs passed under that Seal at Glamis Castle. When residing at Glamis Castle, King James V., as was his custom, frequently paid visits in disguise to Kirriemuir and the neighbourhood, mingling with the townspeople freely, and so earning the title abovementioned and so often applied to him of "King of the Commons." If tradition be true, he had several adventures, and hairbreadth escapes too, similar to the well-known one recorded of him at Cramond Brig, near Edinburgh, when he was rescued by John Howieson of Braehead. 20/21 Palace, on 14th December 1542. His daughter, the beautiful and ill-starred Mary, Queen of Scots, rested at Glamis when on her well-known progress to the northern counties to quell Huntly's rebellion in 1562. The weather was "extreame fowle and colde," and the roads had been very difficult and well nigh impassable, yet, says Randolph, who accompanied her, "I never saw her merrier, never dismayed," and she exclaimed to him that she longed to be a man "to lie all night in the fields, or to walk upon the causeway with a pack or knapschall (head-piece), a Glasgow buckler, and a broadsword." The courtiers in the Queen's train included the Four Maries and the Queen's half-brother, James Stewart, whom the Queen created Earl of Moray. The Royal party dined and slept at Glamis Castle, and the Royal menu, in manuscript, written by the Queen's French secretary, is still in existence. Several Royal documents under the Privy Seal as well as private letters were issued from Glamis Castle during the Queen's stay1. 1. See " The Despences de la Maison Royale," written by the Queen's French Secretary. The entries are as follows:-" Samedy XXIIme. jour a' aoust mil VcLXIJ. la Royne et partie de son train disner a Coupres et coucher a Glames." "DymancheXXIJJme jour d'aoust mil VcLX1J. la Royne et partie de son train disner a Glames soupper et coucher a Guelles" (Edzell). In the "Calendar of Scottish Papers, it is stated that the Queen was accompanied by "the whole nobility," including her half-brother Lord James Stewart, and her four Maries were in attendance. The English Ambassador also was of the party. On this occasion, Queen Mary presented to the Lady Margaret Lyon, daughter of the Seventh Lord Glamis and sister of the Eighth Lord, who became Chancellor of Scotland and who was Queen Mary's host, a watch in a gold case, ornamented with filigree, and having the maker's name - Etienne Hubert of Rouen. It was brought from France by Queen Mary. Lady Margaret Lyon married, first Lord Cassilis and secondly the - Marquess of Hamilton. This watch was preserved in the Hamilton family until the Duchess of Hamilton, wife of William, second Duke, great-grandson of the Marchioness gave it to her daughter, Lady Margaret Hamilton, on her marriage with William Blair. It remained in the possession of the Blairs until the marriage of Janet Blair with Mr. Tait, Clerk of Session, in Edinburgh. It was given by her to her niece, Catherine Sinclair of Murkle, from whom it was obtained and given to Rev. John Hamilton Gray by his relative Mrs. Maddrop of Dalmarnock. 21/22 The Castle as it stood in the time of Mary consisted of a main central building or keep, with a wall of enceinte provided with towers and out-buildings. The main Castle, which still exists, is on the familiar 'L' plan, the principal block measuring seventy-one feet by thirty-eight feet, and the wing twenty-nine feet six inches by twenty-one feet over the walls, which are fifteen feet thick and were four stories high, of which three at least were vaulted. Round the top of the walls there was a corbelled parapet, some of the corbels still showing in the heightened west gable. Extending from this keep southwards were the walls of enceinte; outside was a moat with mounds and ditches which may still be partly traced1. 1. Castellated and Domestic Architecture in Scotland," by MacGibbon and Ross. 22 The keep was remodelled and greatly altered, however, by Patrick, the ninth Lord Glamis, afterwards first Earl of Kinghorne, about 1600 A.D. Above the window of the banqueting hall, and on various parts of the heightened walls, his monogram and that of his wife, Dame Anna Murray, daughter of the first Earl of Tullibardine, may be seen1. It was he, who, between the years 1600 and 1606, erected the newelled stair of 143 steps that is carried up the interior of the tower and gives access to the different flats. The banqueting hall was begun by him, and the slappings for the inserted large windows may still be seen. A good deal of controversy has arisen as to who was the designer of the great staircase and the hall. A tradition in the family holds that when Patrick, first Earl of Kinghorne, was in London, attending the court of King James VI., he employed Inigo Jones to make plans for the restoration. There is no written evidence in the Castle to show who was the architect, but it is certainly not improbable that Inigo Jones designed the improvements, as he lived until 1652. King James VI. had frequently visited Glamis Castle in former days and had taken an intimate interest in the Earl, when young, and the Countess Anna. Indeed he arranged the marriage and ordered 1. In the collection of family relics at Blair Castle, Perthshire, belonging to the Duke of Atholl, there is an ivory spade which was a gift from Lord Glamis to his wife Dame Anna Murray. It bears the following inscription: - "Patricke Lyone Boweres, Captain of ye Guarde of Honoure of his Majestie James ye VI. of Scotlande, who dide give unto Anne, ye beloved daughtere of John Morreye of Tullibardine, in ye yeare of our Lord MDXCIV. (1594), this ivory hoe, which dide come from ye King of Cande, a land verry far off." 23 the ceremony to take place at Linlithgow Palace, where it was solemnised "with greit triomphe," the King and Queen being present. The second Earl of Kinghorne, son of the last named Earl, continued the scheme of remodelling in which his father had taken so keen and active an interest, and the ceiling of the banqueting hall, of beautiful plaster work, bears his monogram and that of his Countess, with the date 16211. It is somewhat surprising that both Lord Kinghorne and his father had attempted the remodelling of the Castle at such a time of national unrest, when their hands were full already, and when other interests and demands of a more pressing nature forced themselves upon their attention. They had both to raise money for "the exigencies of war, by borrowing upon the security of their real estate, and every available piece of ground, even to the very Mains of Glamis, was mortgaged or pledged in some form to numerous creditors throughout the land,"2 and yet, at the same time, they were busily engaged in effecting changes upon the structure of their ancestral home. The strength of character which they had inherited from the Chancellor and the old Tutor of Glamis prevented their allowing public duties to interfere with private needs and necessities. Only it was hard for their successor. The young Earl Patrick, the son of the second Earl, came into his inheritance when only four years old, and during his long minority the state of affairs, owing to various unfortunate circumstances, as the exactions of Cromwell and the extor- 1. Earl John also built "Barns and outhouses " at the Castle. 2. "Glamis Book of Record," p.xiv. 24 -tions of the Earl's step-father, Lord Linlithgow, did not improve, as might have been expected, but seemed to become worse. In 1653 a detachment of soldiers belonging to the Commonwealth was for a time located in and about the Castle; on which occasion the Forfar bakers had to provide the soldiers with "fower dussen of wheate breade" daily, and the butchers "beefe, mutton, or lambe each Monday and Wednesday," under pain of the same being forcibly exacted. It may readily be believed that the "Inglish garisone" would not be inclined to treat their temporary lodging with the respect and consideration that it deserved. They worked havoc and destruction, and left the place in a much more dilapidated condition than they had found it. The effect of their depredations was felt for a considerable time afterwards, and the feeling of resentment left behind them long survived. When Earl Patrick and Countess Helen came to Glamis in 1670, the Castle was practically empty, and with no furniture and furnishing. The little that had been left in it previously they had caused to be removed to Castle Lyon, their other residence near Longforgan, which they had made their home from the time of their marriage. Having done everything that was possible in the way of improvement at Castle Lyon, they now turned their thoughts and steps to "Glammiss" the ancient seat of the family. They found the place in a sad state of neglect. The task before Earl Patrick, not merely of liquidating the debt upon the property which his father had incurred, but of renovating the Castle and improving 25 the policies1 in a manner worthy of the high traditions associated with them, was truly a stupendous one-one indeed calculated to daunt the bravest spirit, and to check the most buoyant enthusiasm. How he achieved success in this respect is recorded in his diary already referred to. Difficulties that seemed insurmountable disappeared before him. With unwearied patience and dogged determination 1. "Tho it be an old house and consequentlie was the more difficult to reduce the place to any uniformity, yet I did covet extremely to order my building so as the frontispiece might have a resemblance on both sydes, and my great hall haveing no following was also a great inducement to me for reering up that quarter upon the west syde wch now is, so having first founded it, I built my walls according to my draught and form'd my entrie wch I behooved to draw a little about from the west, else it had run directly thorrow the great victual house att the barns wch my father built, and I was verie loath to destroy it: verie few will discover the throw in my entrie wch I made as unsensible as possible I could. Others more observing have challenged me for it but were satisfied when I told them the cause, others perhaps more reserved take notice of it and doe not tell me, and conclude it to be an error of ignorance, but they are mistaken. "There be now an entrie from the four severall airths and my house invyroned with a regular planting, the ground on both sydes being of a like bigness, and the figure the same with a way upon either syd of the utter court to the back court where the offices are att the north gate; the gardener's house is upon the on side and the washing and bleatching house on the other, with a fair green lyin thereto to bleatch upon, and a walk there is planted wch goes round the whole intake, wherein when you are walking you'll behold the water running in both syds of the planting. And upon the west syd where the river is to make the way accessible from the west, I have built a bridge and have cast down a little hill of sand wch I caused carrie to such places as were weat and marish. The utter court is a spacious green, and forenent the middle thereof is the principle entrie to the south with a gate and a gate house besyde two rounds on upon each corner, the on appointed for a Dayrie house and the other for a Still house, and the gate house consists of on roume to the gardine and another to the bouling green, the walls are lined, the roof plaistered, the floor lay'd with black and are whyte stone, and verie convenient and refreshful roumes to goe in to from the gardine and bouling green." - (Diary of Earl Patrick). 26 he followed the line he had drawn out for himself, until eventually he had made Glamis a seat, not only worthy of his name and family, but splendid in its attractiveness, and lordly in its dignity. In his great undertaking he most thoughtfully and tactfully enlisted the services of local craftsmen, as far as he found it possible, the finer work being committed to the hands of certain foreign workmen. Andrew Wright, the local joiner, and John Walker, the smith, who made the beautiful wrought iron railing at the top of the central tower, a copy now of which exists, also the masons of Glamis were all employed, and received very reasonable remuneration for their labour. A Dutch artist, Jacob de Wet, and a carver named Jan Van Santvoorti1 were engaged to do the painting and carving. Earl Patrick built the west wing of the Castle, and put a new roof on the east one. He raised the central tower and adorned the garden with a fine dial and statues. He built the walls round the Castle, planted many trees, erected a number of gateways and many necessary domestic 1. Jacob de Wet and Jan Van Santvoort were both Dutchmen who had come to this country for the purpose of executing work at Holyrood Palace. There is no record to show what was the exact nature of the work Santvoort was commissioned to execute at Glamis, but in all probability he made the carved chimney pieces, a number of the picture frames, the stone carving of the Royal Arms, and the bust of Patrick, first Earl of Kinghorne, which stands in the niche over the main doorway. The sum of £394 was paid to Santvoort in 1684. When so large a sum was paid to him, it is likely he had also carved the gladiators, lions, and satyrs on the gateways. De Wet and Santvoort both came to this country in 1674. The work at Holyrood was completed in 1686. Lord Strathmore made a contract with De Wet on 18th January 1688, employing him to make a number of paintings in the Castle. De Wet proved to be slippery in his dealings, and a law plea ensued - See "Glamis Book of Record," Introduction, p.xli. 27 buildings, furnished and decorated the rooms, built the chapel, and commissioned De Wet to paint the panels from the designs in an old bible in the Castle. These and many other improvements and additions, too numerous to mention, he effected, and there are many quaint notices of them in his diary, and of the contracts and agreements which he made with the different workmen. The work of restoration continued from 1671 to 1689. The Castle as completed by him then was one of the finest in the country. A good idea of its appearance may be formed from the picture of it in the present drawing-room, in which the Earl is seen surrounded by his family, and pointing to his finished work. An engraving of the Castle, a "Design in Talyduce," was executed about this time by John Slezer, the draughtsman of the "Theatrum Scotiae." He was a Dutchman who came to Scotland in 1669, and in consequence of his skill he attracted the notice of several of the Scottish nobility. He was made a Burgess of Dundee on 19th April 1678, and when in the neighbourhood he visited Glamis, and became acquainted with Earl Patrick. His lordship asked him to make a sketch of the Castle, which Slezer agreed to do, and his intention was to include it in his "Theatrum Scotiae" before mentioned. "1 have indeed," says to Lord Strathmore, "been att the charge to imploy one who is to make a book of the figure of the draughts and frontispiece in Talyduce (etching on copper), of all the King's castles, pallaces, towns, and other notable places in the Kingdome belonging to privat subjects, who's desyre it was att first to me, 28 and who himsellfe, passing by, deemed this place worthie of the taking notice of. And to this man (Mr.Sletcher by name) I gave liberall money, because I was loath that he should doe it att his own charge, and that I knew the cuts and ingraving would stand him mony." 1, An engraving entitled "Glams House," appeared in the collection which was published in 1693, and a number of reprints of it have been made from time to time. The building depicted, however, bears no resemblance whatever to Glamis Castle as described by Earl Patrick. Doubts were therefore felt whether the engraving represented Glamis or some other building. These doubts have now been confirmed by many authorities, who pronounce the engraving to represent Dalkeith Castle. In the preparation of his work Slezer must have made some confusion of names, and the original drawing of Glamis had probably been lost. A few experts, however, while admitting that it does not represent Glamis as Slezer saw it, suggest that the drawing might be a copy of an older one, or else an attempt to represent what existed before the time of Patrick, ninth Lord Glamis, who was in possession from 1578 to 1615, and who gave to Glamis its existing characteristics. There is an old engraving, however, still preserved in the Castle, which conveys a good idea of the appearance of the Castle at the time, although the walls and surroundings are not included in the picture. It bears this inscription: - "The frontispiece of the Castle of Glamis, given by King Robert, 1. "Glamis Book of Record." 29 the first of the Stewarts, in 1376, with his daughter, to John Lyon, Lord Glamis, Chancellor of Scotland, as it is now reformed by Patrick, Earl of Strathmore, his lineall heir and successor. Ano. Dom. 1686, R. White, sculptor." This view is taken in violent or forced perspective, and the courts and walls in front are consequently not visible. The "R. White" who signs the drawing, was employed by Captain Slezer to engrave certain of the plates in his "Theatrum Scotiae." Structurally, the Castle remained a good deal the same for the next hundred years. It was the scene of great sorrow and lamentation in 1715, when the news came that the young Earl had laid down his life in the cause of the Stewarts on the field of Sheriffmuir1. Deserted by his men he had seized the colours, and, with fourteen others as brave, held his own till he was struck by a musket shot, and sabred by a dragoon. In 1716 its old walls and lofty towers resounded with the clash of arms and the plaudits of multitudes, when the Prince James, son of King James VII., and known as "the Chevalier de St. George" arrived, accompanied by the Earl of Mar and a retinue of gentlemen, and passed a night in the ancient seat of kings. No wonder the prince said it was one of the finest palaces he had seen. Although distinctively Scottish in its design, yet there were 1. Rev. John Balvaird, the Younger, acted as the Chaplain to the Earl of Strathmore. Elizabeth, the Widowed Countess of Strathmore, wrote in her Household Book, still preserved at the Castle, the to pathetic entries: "I sent my Chaplain, Mr. Balvaird, to see my son (the Earl who was killed at Sheriffmuir)," and later I sent to . . . . . for my son's equipment, and again, "I paid for my son's coffin and the journey of his body to Glamis." 30 striking features about it which showed the French influence, notably the clustering turrets, so that at first sight it resembled a French chateau. The bed on which the prince slept used to be shown at the Castle, also his sword,1 and the silver watch2 which he left beneath his pillow. When at Glamis, the Chevalier was entertained by the new Earl of Strathmore, a young delightful boy of sixteen. His brother's minority had saved the succession from forfeiture. The Chevalier "touched" for the "King's Evil"3 in the Chapel at Glamis Castle, and it was said "all the patients recovered." Describing the Chevalier to his friend Hearne afterwards, the young, Earl said: "He was a very cheerful fine young gentleman and a lover of dancing; also of great and uncommon understanding, punctual to his word, very religious, modest, and chaste." 1. The sword bears the following inscription: "God save King James VIII, prosperitie to Scotland and No Union." Father Lewis Innes, Principal of the Scots College, Paris, who formerly had been almoner to the Chevalier's mother, Queen Mary of Modena, accompanied the Prince as confessor and private chaplain. Historians relate that the Prince strictly banished all religious service by Protestants from his household, which resounded with the paternosters and aves of his confessor, Father Innes, while even the protestant bishops, whom he had created himself, were not allowed to say so much as a grace. The identical missal or Book of Devotions, used by Father Innes when officiating before the Chevalier and his court, during their visits to Kinnaird, Glamis, and Scone, is now in the possession of the author. 2. The watch was appropriated by a maid-servant, as a perquisite, but was restored to the family by her great-granddaughter. 3. One of the silver touch-pieces given by the Chevalier to the patients is in possession of the writer. On the Obverse, St. Michael and the Dragon are displayed and the inscription - Soli Deo Gloria. On the Reverse, there is a three-masted ship, in full sail, with surrounding inscriptions - Jaco-III.-DGMB-FR et Hi-Rex. All the Stuart sovereigns "touched" for the King's evil. 31 No less than eighty eight beds were occupied by the officers and gentlemen in his train. An anonymous writer supposed to be Defoe in a "Tour through Great Britain," in 1723, describes the Castle as it then appeared. He says: "It was one of the finest old built palaces in Scotland, and by far the largest, that when seen at a distance the piles of turrets and lofty buildings, spires and towers, made it look like a town. The palace as you approach it strikes you with awe and admiration by the many gilded balustrades at the top. The outer court has a statue on each side on the top of the gate as big as life. On the great gate of the inner court are balustrades of stone finely adorned with statues; and in the court are four brazen statues bigger than the life on pedestals; the one of James VI. and I. of England in his stole; the other of Charles I. in his boots, spurs, and sword, as he is sometimes painted by Vandyke; Charles II. is in Roman dress, as on the Exchange in London; and James II. in the same as he is in Whitehall." From the above description the changes wrought by the two Earls Patrick can be easily recognized. The years pass and again there was dule and sorrow when the news came that on 11th May 1728, Charles, fourth Earl of Strathmore, had been killed in a scuffle in Forfar, between James Carnegie of Finavon and John Lyon of Brigton. The following letter, written by, Lady Nairne from Glamis on 15th May I728, and addressed to Mrs. Oliphant of Gask, gives a graphic description of the unhappy event and a personal picture of the Strathmore household at the time. 32 "I know, dear Amelia, just now it would take a volume to describe the melancholy condition of the family from the highest to the lowest, but no words could express poor Lady Strathmore's sorrow nor can any but such unfortunately as I comprehend it. The state of her health is bad enough, she has a violent cough . . . you may be sure no care in my power will be neglected, but I have some influence with her by the unhappy sympathy in our conditions, so that often we cry together then I endeavour to amuse her with idle stories, for I know by dearbought experience in vain weak reason would command when love has led the way. I thank you for the kind intention . . . but they have employment enough here. Katy is with Lady Kathyl and Lady Strathmore often, but Mary is her principal favourite, her Lord was so fond of her . . . (on Tuesday senight, he told me he would wade up to the neck in watter to serve Miss Mary). Charlotte is all the housewife. We have to make tea in the drawing room, for Lady Mary Lyon2 is so ill she keeps her bed. You have heard the dismal story very wrong, for Brigton I believe would as soon hurt himself as Lord Strathmore, and so he thought and to the last was very fond of him. It was Finavon, who, without any previous warning ran throw and throw the body (and no sword drawn but his own) as he was walking on the street in Forfar after a burrial he had been at, whether it was premeditated malice 1. Lady Katharine Cochrane, sister of Lady Strathmore, who married the Earl of Galloway in 1729. 2. She died at Glamis Castle in 1780 in her eighty fifth year. The rooms she occupied in the Castle are still called by her name. 33 or mad fury 1 know not. I shall make your compliments." Robert Mercer, writing to his mother Lady Nairne from Aldie, on the same event says: "His friendship for which he was so conspicuous, for a more sincere friend never was, must alas have a hand in his exit, for by what I can understand had he had less of humanity to his murtherer and less friendship to his relative we might still have had the dear Strathmore."l Prince Charles Edward Stuart did not visit Glamis as it was not in the line of his march northwards, but his opponent the Duke of Cumberland rested here with his army in 1746 on his way north. The people of Forfar must have been Jacobite in their sympathies, as it is said that a number of them came to Glamis under cover of night and cut the girths of the horses, that the progress of the Hanoverian army might be retarded. There is a tradition that the Duke occupied the same bed at Glamis as the old chevalier had used in 1716. The poet Gray who was a friend of John, the ninth Earl of Strathmore, visited Glamis in 1765, and in a letter to Dr. Wharton speaks in glowing terms regarding it. He describes it as "rising proudly out of what seems a great and thick wood of tall trees, with a cluster of hanging towers on the top; the house from the height of it, the greatness of its mass, the many towers atop, and the spread of its wings, has really a very singular and striking appearance like nothing I ever saw: adding, you 1. See " Ofiphants of Gask," by E. Maxtone Graham, p. 145. 34 will comprehend something of its shape from the plan of the second floor which 1 enclose."l Continuing, he says, "You descend to the Castle gradually from the south through a double and triple avenue of Scotch firs, sixty or seventy feet high under the gateways. This approach is full a mile long, and when you have passed the second gate the firs change to limes and another oblique avenue goes of on either hand towards the offices. The third gate delivers you into a court with a broad pavement and grass plots, adorned with statues of the four Stewart Kings, bordered with old silver firs and yew trees alternately, and opening with an iron palisade on either side, and two square old fashioned parterres surrounded by stone fruit walls." From the detailed account thus given it may easily be seen that the Castle still retained its "appropriate accompaniments," but when Pennant visited it a few cars later in 1772, a change had taken place. The second and third gates with the outer court into which the latter "delivers you," also the square old fashioned parterres had all disappeared. The work of destruction had begun. The view of the Castle by Pennant is not in forced perspective like the old one by White, but the court does not appear in it. The paved walk up to the front door is however still shown. Captain Grose, the well known antiquarian Falstaff for whom Burns wrote his "Tam o' Shanter," visited Glamis in 1790, and made a sketch of the Castle, also of some of the curious relics that had 1. This plan is unfortunately lost. 35 been found in the Loch of Forfar. In describing, the Castle, he states that it "originally consisted of two rectangular towers longer than broad, with walls of fifteen feet in thickness. They were connected by a square projection, and together formed a figure somewhat like the letter 'Z', saving that in the Castle all the angles were right ones. This form gave mutual defences to parts of the building. Great alterations and additions were made to the house by Patrick, Earl of Kinghorne. These were done in 1606: Tradition says Inigo Jones was the architect, and the building in some parts resembles Herriot's hospital and other buildings designed by him. The great hall was finished in 1621. Divers alterations have been projected in the building, for which one of the wings has been partly pulled down and is not yet rebuilt." Grose's view shows that the wing had been partly demolished, as it stands only one storey high. In the summer of 1793, when he was just about twenty two years of age, Sir Walter Scott paid a visit to Glamis. He had been staying at Simprim, Meigle, with his bachelor friend Patrick Murray, and made an expedition one day to Glamis. In his "Letters on Demonology," he describes his visit in these terms: "The night I spent at Glammis was one of the two periods distant from each other at which I could recollect experiencing that degree of superstitious awe which my countrymen call eerie . . . . The heavy pile contains much in its appearance, and in the tradition connected with it, impressive to the imagination. It was the scene of 36 the murder of a Scottish King of great antiquity - not indeed the gracious Duncan, with whom the name naturally associates itself, but Malcolm II. The extreme antiquity of the building is vouched by the thickness of the walls and the wild straggling arrangement of the accommodation within doors. As the late Earl seldom resided at Glammis, it was when I was there but half furnished, and that with moveables of great antiquity, which, with the pieces of chivalric armour hanging on the walls greatly contributed to the general effect of the whole. After a very hospitable reception from the late Peter Proctor1, seneschal of the Castle, I was conducted to my apartments in a distant part of the building. I must own that when 1 heard door after door shut, after my conductor had retired, I began to consider myself as too far from the living, and somewhat too near the dead. We had passed through what is called the King's Room, a vaulted apartment garnished with stags' antlers and other trophies of the chase, and said by tradition to be the spot of Malcolm's murder, and I had an idea of the vicinity of the Castle Chapel. In spite of the truth of history, the whole night scene in Macbeth's Castle rushed at once upon me and struck my mind more forcibly than even when I have seen its terrors represented by John Kemble and his inimitable sister. In a word 1. He was Factor on the Glamis Estates for fifty years, and died in 1819. His son, William David, succeeded him and was Factor for forty years, dying in 1860. The present Factor, Mr. Gavin Ralston, M.V.O., succeeded his father, Mr. Andrew Ralston, who had held the office for fifty two years. Thus there have been only four Factors in Glamis during the long period of 170 years. This speaks well both for proprietor and factor. 37 I experienced sensations, which, though not remarkable for timidity or superstition, did not fail to affect me to the point of being disagreeable, while they were mingled at the same time with a strange and indescribable sort of pleasure, the recollection of which affords me gratification at this moment." When at Glamis Sir Walter had the honour of drinking the health of the absent Earl from the famous "Lion of Glammis." It dates from early in the seventeenth century, bears the Augsburg mark and the letter 'E'. Its height is nine inches. It is the prototype of the "Poculum Potatorium" of the Baron of Bradwardine in "Waverley," the "Blessed Bear," being a massive beaker of silver, double gilt, moulded into the shape of a lion, and holding about an English pint of wine. The form alludes to the family name of Strathmore, and when exhibited, the cup must necessarily be emptied to the Earl's health. Sir Walter said that he "ought perhaps to be ashamed of recording that he had the honour of swallowing the contents of the Lion; and the recollection of the feat served to suggest the story of the Bear of Bradwardine." "Glenallan House," in "The Antiquary," is supposed to represent Glamis Castle, with which Scott was so well acquainted. Years afterwards Sir Walter deplored the sad changes that had taken place, and the alterations made on the old building, which he felt had spoilt its character completely. In his "Essay on Landscape Gardening," he comments upon the proper domestic ornaments of the Castle Pleasaunce, and 38 laments the barbarous innovation of the Capability-men; "down went many a trophy of old magnificence, courtyard, ornamented enclosure, fosse, avenue, barbican, and every external muniment of battled wall and flanking tower, out of the midst of which the ancient dome, rising high above all its characteristic accompaniments, and seemingly girt round by its appropriate defences, which again circled each other in their different gradations, looked as it should, the queen and mistress of the surrounding country. It was thus that the huge old tower of Glammis once showed its lordly head above seven circles (if I remember aright) of defensive boundaries, through which the friendly guest was admitted, and at each of which a suspicious person was unquestionably put to his answer. A disciple of Kent had the cruelty to render this splendid old mansion (the more modern part of which was the work of Inigo Jones) more parkish as he was pleased to call it; to raze all those exterior defences, and bring his mean and paltry gravel walk up to the very door from which, deluded by the name, one might have imagined Lady Macbeth (with the form and features of Siddons) issuing forth to receive King Duncan. It is thirty years and upwards since I have seen Glammis, but I have not yet forgotten or forgiven the atrocity which under pretence of improvement deprived that lordly place of its appropriate accompaniments, 'leaving an ancient dome and towers like these, beggared and outraged.' " In such burning terms Scott pours forth his strong disapproval of the so-called "improvements" that had been carried 39 out at Glamis, but which good taste and judgement pronounced disfigurement. "Capability Brown" and his followers had started the fashion about 1775 of modernising grounds, and it was one of his school who, unfortunately, had effected the changes that Scott so bitterly regretted at Glamis. The walls that encircled the Castle were all taken down with the exception of the two flanking towers still seen on the lawn. The grounds were put into one park which is still called "the Angles" from the "angular shape of the old enclosures and rows of trees along them,"1 and the gateways were removed. The avenues were greatly mutilated, and "although a fine park of upwards of two hundred acres has been formed, yet not in keeping with the venerable Castle, and the period to which it belongs."2 Two of the antique gateways which stood at intervals on the main avenue were rebuilt at the north and south entrances to the present park where they still remain.3 Many alterations have been effected and additions made to the Castle and policies since Sir Walter's time. Important structural changes were carried out in 1811 by the tenth Earl, and in 1849 by the twelfth Earl. More than a century ago the west wing was burnt down and rebuilt afterwards. It was probably during the rebuilding of this wing that the stone gables and gablets with which 1. "New Statistical Account." 2. Ibid. 3. The stone bridge, which spans the river Dean as it crosses the north avenue, was fortunately left intact. On a panel fixed to the parapet, a coronet appears with the monograms of Earl John and Countess Elizabeth beneath, and the date 1697. Earl John was the fourth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, being the son of Earl Patrick. 40 the roof of each of the wings was finished, together with the attic story, had been removed from the east wing, and the present horizontal "Strawberry Hill Gothic cornice, with crenellated parapet erected instead1. In 1891 a wing, in the baronial style, was built at the east end, and within recent years much has been done to preserve the old features in and around the Castle, no trouble being spared to uphold and maintain its ancient Scottish character by the present Earl and Countess of Strathmore whose taste and judgment in these arrangements have been noteworthy. In 1905, the young Lord Glamis came of age, and in honour of the event a series of festivities extending over the best part of a week were planned, which made the occasion a gay and joyous memory in Angus. Among all the functions the ball given in the ancient banqueting hall - now the drawing-room - was the most splendid and memorable. Lights glowed from a hundred windows in the old Castle, and gusts of music swept through its ancient passages and vaults. Surely never was there such "a venue for a modern festivity" as this medieval castle with its vaulted roofs, great stone staircases and walls fifteen feet thick. One who was present remarked that the proper actors for a ball at Glamis would be men in armour and ladies in hoops and powder. Yet, 'neath the shadows of its six hundred years of history, age grew mellow and youth grew 1. MacGibbon and Ross. 41 merry. The room was lighted by enormous candelabra, and the great fireplace was filled in with the gorgeous glowing of autumn flowers and foliage. The musicians were accommodated at one end of the rooms and the recesses were furnished with couches and chairs. The scene was one of the greatest brilliancy; the flowers, the jewels, the soft colours, the picturesque room with its arched ceiling covered with elaborate plaster-work dated 1621, the portraits of former Earls, of Knights and ladies on the walls, the brilliant throng which surged out and in, all made a spectacle of unique interest and beauty. The Earl and Countess of Strathmore made ideal hosts, the gracious dignity of the Countess singling her out even in that splendid assembly. An incident took place in the Castle twenty eight years ago, during the childhood of our present Queen, which the present writer described at the request of Lady Cynthia Asquith for the authorised biography of the Queen written by her. The writer thinks it may not be unfitting to include it in this historical description of the early home of the Queen. It was a still November afternoon in the year 1909, the towers and clustering turrets of the Castle loomed through the thick mist which encircled them, and the haughs behind Kirriemuir were only dimly visible. The flowing lines of the distant Grampians, at this season usually flecked with snow, were now completely lost to sight. Pursuing his leisurely Journey down the long main avenue which divides the noble expanse of the Angles Park into two, the writer felt imbued with a sense of the gloom of his 42 surroundings. The atmosphere was cold and damp. The "one red leaf, the last of its clan," fell almost at his feet. Nought was heard but an occasional "drip drip" from the boughs of the spreading trees and shrubs. Already the shadows of early evening were beginning to gather and settle around the stately pile, which, bereft of its "appropriate accompaniments" in the shape of the seven circles of walls which, at one time, surrounded it, seemed to stand tall and spectral like, Yet with a solemn grandeur entirely its own. The formal garden, with its yew trees, centuries old, the great sun dial, the wide and open lawn flanked by two circular towers, sole remnants of the first line of defence - all spoke of other days and of another order of things than the present. Entering the Castle by the low main doorway which still displays the huge knocker dated 1689, and passing the "yett" of massive iron from which, as Sir Walter Scott has said, "One might have imagined Lady Macbeth (with form and features of Siddons) issuing forth to receive King Duncan," the writer mounted the great stone staircase and entered the drawing room, the genial warmth of which contrasted favourably with the chill and gloom outside. Lamps in crimson shades threw warm gules upon the polished oaken floor. A blazing fire of logs burned in the huge fire place and lit up the room, so that one could recognise the family portraits and other pictures particularly the fine one of Claverhouse, by Lely, and the quaint portrait of Patrick, the ninth lord, by Clouet. 43 Two lighted candles in tall silver sconces stood upon a lacquer chest or coffer, immediately beneath the large old fashioned picture of Earl Patrick, in a Roman dress, surrounded by his family, and pointing to his finished work the Castle and its surroundings. Here, amid these surroundings, so full of historical associations, the writer was kindly greeted by the Countess of Strathmore and other members of the family assembled there. After some general conversation the Countess sat down at the piano, and played a few bars of a quaint old minuet. Suddenly, as if by a magician's touch, two little figures seemed to rise from the floor and dance, with admirable precision and grace, the stately measure so characteristic of the eighteenth century. These little children were the Hon. David Lyon and Lady Elizabeth Lyon, the youngest son and daughter of the house. The former had donned part of the dress of the family fool or jester, quaintly interesting, and the latter had assumed the robe and little cap, taken from the lacquer chest, of a little girl of the period of James VI. and I. The dress was of satin, of heliotrope colour, laced with silver, and the cap was a tight fitting one, also trimmed with silver. Surely never was there such a setting for so bright and fascinating a scene. The lofty room, the historic surroundings, the dresses of a bygone period, the quaint music, so suggestive of Purcell and his formal school, all combined to form a scene which could not readily be forgotten by those privileged to behold it. As the dance proceeded the glamour 44 or illusion seemed to increase. Was it reality or had the psychic influence of historic Glamis clouded the mind and conjured up a scene to delude the senses? 'No "crystal ball" experience could have been more effective. For one brief, yet supreme, half hour the seventeenth and the twentieth centuries were one. New reveries were forming, leading to others still more historically suggestive and alluring, when suddenly the music stopped and the little dancers, making a low bow and curtsy, clapped their hands with delight, and in this way brought the minds of all back to present-day reality. Little choruses of praise were heard on every side, and Lady Elizabeth, on being asked by the writer the name of the character she had adopted, said with great empressement, "I call myself the Princess Elizabeth," alluding, no doubt, both to her own name, and to that of the daughter of King James VI. and I., who was Princess Royal of Great Britain and Ireland, and who became Queen of Bohemia. The words of the little lady had a deeper and more prophetic meaning than the thought which prompted them. Then it was only acting, but now it is reality. The daughter of the ancient House of Glamis is now the Queen Consort of our beloved King George. In the same year the Countess of Strathmore instituted an Arts and Crafts Guild in Glamis, with the object of encouraging the practice of good artistic work from old designs. Instruction in needlework, carving in wood and stone, iron 45 work and other branches of applied art was given during the winter evenings, and brought out considerable skill and talent hitherto unknown among the inhabitants - the wood-carving class, under the late Mr. Frank McNicoll, being specially successful. A highly interesting and successful exhibition of the work was held in the dining-room of the Castle, and was assisted by large numbers throughout the County of Angus. A bed, beautifully embroidered by the Countess - an exact replica of one in which the Prince James, the Chevalier de St. George slept when he visited the Castle in 1716, and a copy of the old chair in the crypt of the Castle, bearing the date 1689, and the letters Q.M. II. - Queen Mary II., made by Mr. Frank McNicoll, were outstanding exhibits. Time quickly passes, and on 4th August 1914 the anniversary of Queen Elizabeth's birth - the Great War was declared. A hospital for convalescent soldiers was instituted in Glamis Castle by the Earl and Countess of Strathmore. The spacious dining-room was fitted up as a ward, which was placed under the care of a competent nurse and assistant, the Countess herself taking an active interest in its management. Lady Rose Lyon, the second daughter of the Earl and Countess, frequently took charge during her mother's absence. She had received some special training for the purpose in one of the London hospitals, and proved a very capable superintendent. It goes without saving that the men were treated with the greatest consideration, and repeated expression was given by them of their appreciation of 46 the unremitting kindness they received, and of the pleasure they experienced in residing within so hospitable and interesting a dwelling. To this day Lord and Lady Strathmore receive letters expressing in the most touching way the warm regard in which they are held by many of the gallant soldiers who had the privilege of receiving their help and sympathy. In 1916, Lady Rose married Commander the Hon. W. S. Leveson Gower, and her younger sister, Lady Elizabeth, took her place in the hospital. By her unwearied kindness, as well as by her bright and winning ways, she readily endeared herself to all the inmates. Untiring in her efforts to keep the soldiers amused, she organised concerts and other entertainments to relieve the monotony of the hospital life, and her presence brought joy and solace to all the suffering ones. Being the youngest daughter of the house she was the darling of her family, and the same pleasure which her presence invariably conveyed to her kith and kin seemed to be felt also by all the inmates of the hospital, who were always made to feel that they were members of the household. In the autumn of 1916 fire broke out one afternoon in the upper rooms of the great central tower of the Castle. For a time the venerable pile seemed in great danger, but the efforts of the fire brigade from Dundee to arrest the progress of the fire eventually proved successful, and about nine o'clock in the evening, the flames were finally extinguished. When the danger was at its greatest Lady Elizabeth, who was then only a girl of sixteen, but displayed a 47 spirit worthy of "Duncraggan's Dame," at once took the initiative, and, calling the servants and employees together, arranged them in a long, line or queue, and in this way pictures, furniture and other valuables were passed from hand to hand down the stairs and so conveyed from the centre of danger to a place of safety. A cry of Joyous thankfulness went up from the assembled multitude when the fury of the flames was at last subdued, and loudly with "Highland Honours" was the young lady of the house toasted that night, both in cottage and in hall, for the calm fortitude and heroism she had displayed when the home of her fathers was threatened with destruction. In the course of its long history Glamis Castle has been visited by many personages of high rank, distinction and talent. Not to mention the kings and queens of old, and the great men and women renowned in our Scottish history, there have been in recent times a regular influx of Royal and Princely persons, who have felt drawn towards it by the historic glamour which seems to surround its towers and walls. King George V. and Queen Mary, King Edward VIII., our present beloved King, and Queen with their family the Castle having, been the early home of Her Majesty and the birthplace of her younger daughter, the Princess Margaret Rose have all experienced its attraction and walked beneath the shadow of its walls. Artists and critics, poets, historians and philosophers, statesmen and soldiers, Church dignitaries, 48 and science, men of letters, men of noble rank, men of boundless wealth have gathered here - a long procession - to behold. "The historic demesne For Shakespeare famous and the murderous Thane." It is matter of common knowledge that there is a secret chamber in the Castle, the exact situation of which is known only to three individuals at one time the Earl of the day, his eldest son, and a third party whom they take into their confidence. A large crop of legends and theories has arisen regarding, the nature of the secret with which the room is connected, and the reasons for its preservation. The tale most frequently repeated is to this effect: - Some centuries ago the Lord of Glamis and his guest, the Earl of Crawford, otherwise styled "Earl Beardie"1, or the "Tiger Earl," were playing cards 1. It is authoritatively stated, however, that Earl Beardie "tuik the hot fever and died in the year of God, ane thousand four hundred and fifty four Years, and wes buried with gret triumph in the Greyfriars of Dundee in his forbears sepulchre." The late Rev. Dr. A. K. H. Boyd, of St. Andrews, who was a guest at Glamis Castle in 1879, tells the following humorous incident in connection with the haunted room, in his well known volume of Reminiscences, entitled "Twenty five Years of St. Andrews": One morning the subject of the secret room was introduced in the conversation. The Earl told a story of an excellent church dignitary who had been staying at the Castle some years before. He was a fine example of the clerical beggar and was always collecting money for church building. One evening at Glamis, he had just gone to bed "when all of a sudden the ghost appeared; apparently a Strathmore of some centuries back. With great presence of mind, the clergyman took the first word. Addressing the ghost, he said he was most anxious to raise money for a church he was erecting; that he had a bad cold and could not well get out of bed; but that his collecting book was on his dressing table, and he would be extremely obliged if his visitor would give him a subscription. Upon this the ghost vanished and has never come back any more." 49 in what is now the secret room of the Castle. The evening was Saturday, and the host and guest had become so engrossed in their play that they did not realise the flight of time, and that Sunday was approaching, until they were reminded of the hour by an attendant. They then swore a terrible oath together, agreeing that they would not cease their play until the game was finished, although they should have to play until "the crack of doom." The oath had hardly been uttered when the hour of twelve struck, and a stranger appeared. In even dispassionate tones he informed them that he would keep the compact and take them at their word. The tradition is that these noblemen meet every year in the secret room on the anniversary of that night and play cards, and that they will continue to do so until the Great Judgment Day. Secret rooms were common in old Scottish Castles. The rude stern nature of the times demanded that a place of retreat should be available for members of the family on the approach of danger, but so far as the writer can discover, the secret of none of them has been so jealously guarded as that of Glamis. With the exception of Glamis they are all "open secrets," and visitors are deliberately told them to their unmingled joy and delight. The "whence and where" of Glamis, however, no tongue can tell. The mystery has never been solved. The late Andrew Lang, poet, historian and essayist, writer of books on ghosts, and who used to say that his correspondents were of three classes - literary, ghostly seekers and counsellors, and lastly humbugs 50 from time to time emerged from his retreat at St. Andrews, the "Grey city by the Northern sea" to imbibe something of the mystic romance and psychic power of Glamis. Sometimes, on these occasions, he visited the writer at the Manse, who like himself had been a student of St. Andrews, and he never failed to express his admiration for the Castle, and of the inspiration for his works, particularly the ghostly ones, that it afforded him. Lang was an intensely interesting conversationalist, a "Palace of Truth" indeed. His views on the secret chamber of Glamis Castle were peculiar and somewhat fantastic, and need not be repeated here. When talking of the secret chamber, however, he drew an analogy between it and a subterranean chamber which the late Marquess of Bute had discovered under the extensive remains of the Augustinian Priory of St. Andrews, which he acquired about the time he became Lord Rector of the University. Lord Bute, being psychical in temperament, was greatly interested in this discovery, and was anxious to find out what this spacious chamber beneath the ancient refectory, with its vaulted roof and fragments of massive pillar, had been used for in monastic times. The Rt. Rev. Sir David O. Hunter Blair, Lord Bute's friend and biographer, suggested that it was merely a substructure, such as is to be seen at Battle Abbey, Newbattle (near Edinburgh), and elsewhere, intended to keep the refectory high and dry out of the damp, and designed, of course, in the picturesque Early Pointed architecture of the time. Lord 51 Bute was not satisfied with this theory, and announced that he intended to ask a clairvoyant lady, "with a remarkable gift of seeing what had gone on anywhere at any given period of history," to look into the matter and ascertain what use the Canons Regular were making of the Chamber say, a few years before the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Sir David, describing this incident in one of his recent works, says: "In due course Miss X. arrived at St. Andrews, and was requested to pass an entire night, from dusk to dawn, in this vaulted crypt, and see what she could see. Provided, I believe, with fur wraps, sherry, and sandwiches and a comfortable arm chair. The lady duly kept her vigil, but reported next morning that nothing had happened. I rather gathered that she had owned to having slept during a good part of the night: anyhow, Lord Bute was annoyed at her failure and urged on her yet another nocturnal watch. "I found him on the following morning, pleased and excited at the outcome of the second night's vigil. At two in the morning, or thereabouts, a sudden though faint light, reported the watcher, filled the chamber, and she saw a procession of black-hooded figures appear from the direction of the door leading to the refectory above, and proceed slowly through the crypt (I think in silence) to the ruined staircase at the opposite end, leading up to the chapter house. This building, still roofed and almost perfect, did not belong to Lord Bute, but was Crown property, and was divided from the vaulted chamber by a wall. The ghostly procession paid no 52 attention whatever to this modern partition but simply walked through it in the direction of the chapter house beyond, and was seen no more. " 'A most satisfactory séance,' this second night's vigil was pronounced to have been; but there were two remarkable features about it which puzzled Lord Bute, and as to which, like Rosa Dartle, he wanted to know.' "Why black hooded figures? when, as everybody knows, the colour of the Augustinian habit was white. Could Miss X. have been deceived by deep shadows and have mistaken white for black? 'No, she averred; for what she saw under these conditions was always self luminous shining by its own eerie light; so if she saw black hoods and habits they were black. "The suggested (alternative) explanations were two. Either, in those stormy days, with Dissolution hanging over them, the Canons (much like the French Dominicans in recent times) had exchanged their white habits for black so as to be less conspicuous; or else, according to the custom of their Order, the Augustinians, when walking in procession or out of doors, would don black hooded cloaks over their white cassocks. "So far, so good; but here was a much more intriguing incident. When the sombre procession had vanished through the wall in the direction of the chapter house, there was instantly heard, as it were from the latter building, a strange sound - the lowing of cattle, roaring of bulls, 'mooing' of many cows. What could this mean? what could 53 it have portended, in the middle of the sixteenth century? " 'When you go to Edinburgh,' said Lord Bute, 'consult the memoirs (partly autobiographical) of Ninian Winram, last Prior of St. Andrews Monastery who (I think) conformed to the Kirk, and anyhow held the property at the time of the Dissolution.' "I did consult the book in question (with the help of a kind Librarian), and ascertained this fact. Ninian Winram, custodian of the abandoned Priory, had no longer any Canons to apply the chapter-house to its proper use. It was (and is) the soundest of the derelict buildings; so he utilised it by turning it into a cow-house, Scottice 'byre'. "I report the facts, I hope with accuracy. But I do not pretend to explain them." Lang, on his last visit to Glamis, gave the writer a poem, composed by himself, and written in his own "crabbed" hand. It is as follows:- HERODOTUS IN EGYPT. He left the land of Youth, he left the young, The smiling Gods of Greece, he passed the isle Where Jason tarried and where Sappho sung; He sought the secret founted wave of Nile, And of that old world, dead a weary while, Heard what the Priests told in their mystic tongue, And voyaged through the holy fanes among Dark tribes that worshipped Cat and Crocodile. He learned the tales of Death Divine and Birth, Strange loves of Hawk, and Horus, Sky, and Earth, The marriage and the murder of the Sun, The shrines of beasts and Ghosts he wandered through And knew in them the Gods of Greece, and knew Behind all creeds the everlasting One. As so many descriptions of Glamis Castle have been written from time to time, it seems almost 54 superfluous to attempt another, but the story of the old pile would surely be incomplete were nothing recorded in these pages of its modern state and appearance, that comparisons might be drawn in the light of historic continuity between what it has been in the past, and what it is now in these latter days of movement and kaleidoscopic change. The Castle stands in the middle of the valley, or "Howe," as it is called locally, of Strathmore, a little way off the road from Dundee to Kirriemuir, and is about five miles distant from the loch and town of Forfar. It is surrounded by an extensive and well wooded park, and is approached by three avenues on the north, south, and east; the leading entrance being from the south. Here an old gateway (already referred to) which had been erected by Earl Patrick further down the avenue has been rebuilt. It is of stone, with three arches, and battlemented at the top. Stone lions, eagles, and unicorns, supporting finely pointed shields are displayed on coigns of vantage, while beneath, figures of satyrs are carved in relief. The wrought-iron gates themselves were a gift to the present Earl and Countess of Strathmore on the occasion of their Golden Wedding. From the gate a fine avenue thickly planted with trees is led for a short way through the wealth of greenery until it turns sharply to the left and enters upon an extensive open meadow with a row of trees on each side, and continues in a straight line for three quarters of a mile up to the principal entrance. The Castle at first sight has the appearance of a French chateau of the late sixteenth century. It is built of old red 55 sandstone. Two wings extend on either side of the central tower or keep, and the large seventeenth century tower, containing the great staircase, projects in front of the main building, part of the walls of which having been removed to receive it. The main doorway is at the foot of the tower, and at the top there is a clock which occupies the place of a window, with fine stone mullions. The upper portion of the main building is in the distinctively Scottish style of the seventeenth century. The angle turrets, two stories in height, with tiny upper windows and high roofs, completely hide the gables from view. Square parapets, forming the end of a platform roof, are crowned with a quaint stone turret.1 The open promenade at the top is protected by a very fine wrought iron railing, a copy of the identical one that Walker, the smith at Glamis, made for Earl Patrick in 1673. The tower forms one side of a quadrangle, the other buildings completing it, and together they enclose an extensive courtyard. The entrance doorway is supported by pilasters in the debased Corinthian style. Immediately over it is a circular aperture, or niche, in which the bust of the first Earl is placed. The scrolls over the windows, and the coats of arms with dates of the various Earls and Countesses, ranged along the walls, are quite in accordance with the style and fashion of the period. The Royal Arms beautifully sculptured in stone are displayed over the outer door which is of oak, and which is provided with 1. "Castellated and Domestic Architecture in Scotland," by MacGibbon and Ross. 56 an immense iron knocker bearing the date (1689) when the work of Earl Patrick was completed. Behind this door a heavily grated iron gate or yett is erected, which probably guarded the entrance of the older fifteenth century Castle. Its height is six feet eight inches; its breadth four feet eight inches. It has six perpendicular and nine horizontal bars within the frame. Each bar measures one and a half inches in breadth by six eighths of an inch in depth, but in the half which contains the eyes it is one and one eighth inch square in section. It has two hinges of ordinary type, and two bolts fourteen and a half inches in length and one and three eighths inches in diameter, and cylindrical in form. Each hasp is a foot in length, and has a hook at the bottom from which hangs a ring. The staple does not as usual spring directly forward from a bar so as to be protected by it, but from a neck which penetrates the bar of the frame sideways and is then directed forward. The iron door is four and a half inches behind the oaken one, of which the wood is modern but the iron ancient, including the hinges, bars, and square headed nails with which it is strengthened. Each door is protected by a rebate. A single hole in the wall is the only evidence that strengthening bars may have been in use formerly.1 Within this ancient doorway three staircases are seen. That on the right leads down to the dungeons, to the old vaulted kitchen with its immense chimney, and the old well in the thickness of the wall which supplied the Castle with water in time of siege; 1. See "Proceedings of Society of Antiquaries." 57 that to the left leads up to the Retainers' Hall now known as the "Crypt". It is fifty feet long. Its walls and low vaulted roof are composed entirely of stone. There are seven windows, some of which are cut out of the thickness of the walls and make large alcoves with stone benches on each side, and which probably "had been used as sleeping chambers in old days."1 Specimens of chain armour and of old Scottish weapons adorn the walls. Figures in full suits of mail stand at intervals beneath the stone arches, while the furniture is chiefly Jacobean. On the back of a fine old oaken chair which bears the figure of a crowned Queen carved in relief, with the inscription Q.M.II, 1689 Queen Mary II - hangs the buff coloured felt coat, laced with silver, of the gallant Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee. The walls of the crypt and various staircases for a long period were covered with plaster, but the late Earl removed this so that the dressed stonework may be seen and the ancient character of the interior preserved. The crypt and lower portion of the tower are formed of large rough blocks of old red sandstone. The walls in some parts are fifteen feet thick, and secret staircases and recesses or closets were made in the thickness of them. Two of these staircases have been discovered in recent times, one leading from the crypt down to the old well, and another from the drawing room to a trapdoor in a dressing room above. The third and great staircase is spiral with a hollow newel in the middle, and circles round the interior 1. See Article by Lady Strathmore in "Pall Mall Magazine." 58 of the tower of the tower from base to summit. It is the most recently built of all the staircases, and consists of one hundred and forty three steps, six feet ten inches in width, each of one stone. From the south east corner of the crypt a dark passage leads through the solid sandstone to King Duncan's hall a quaint looking chamber where a fire place was recently discovered in the wall. The dining room is entered from the west end of the crypt, and is a fine lofty modern apartment with an elegant plaster ceiling. Originally the ceiling was divided into panels, on which one of the stories from Ovid's "Metamorphoses" was painted. The walls are panelled in oak, and display the emblazonments and arms of the family and allied houses. In a recess at one end stands a side board of richly carved oak, above which hangs the full length portrait of the late Earl of Strathmore, by H. T. Wells, R.A., presented to the Countess by the tenantry of Glamis, while at the opposite end of the dining room is the full length portrait of the Countess, by R. Herdman, R.S.A., presented to the late Earl in 1876 when his son (the present Earl) came of age. Beautiful portraits of the present Earl and Countess by Philip de Laszlo, M.V.O., presented to them on the occasion of their Golden Wedding are also hung in a good light in this room. On the carved oak mantel the mottoes of the Lyon family appear - "In te Domine speravi" (In Thee O Lord have I trusted), and of the family of Bowes of Streatlam - "Sans variance terme de ma vie" (without change till life ends). 59 On either side of the fire place hang portraits of the present Earl in full uniform, and of Patrick, Lord Glamis, his eldest son - the latter portrait having been presented by the tenantry to his lordship on the occasion of his marriage in 1908. A staircase leads past King Duncan's hall to the tapestry room on the next floor. The walls of this chamber, as may be inferred from its name, are lined with old tapestry depicting classical scenes, some of them resembling landscapes by Claude de Lorraine. At the door a quaint stone ledge or seat arrests the eye. It may have been a sentry seat in olden times when it was found necessary to post guards at entrances for purposes of security and defence. Cabinets of old china and furniture, antique in date, and elegant in design, relieve the sombre appearance of the room. A fine chimney piece of carved oak, in which a representation of the virgin is inserted, has been placed above the original stone mouldings, part of which are shown and form an effective contrast to the old wood-work. The fire place is lined with blue and white Dutch tiles. Leaving this room by the door we entered, and ascending a few steps, we find ourselves in "King Malcolm's Room." The ceiling of this apartment is also of beautiful plaster work. Attention is drawn to the fire place with the coat of arms above, and the vaulted window recess. China cupboards, and cases of curios and miniatures, many of them of high value, are displayed in suitable places, and round the walls fine old tapestry, dating from the time of Earl Patrick, is hung. 60 A little recess beyond, also filled with valuable porcelain, leads to the old Banqueting Hall or modern drawing room certainly the most splendid apartment in the Castle. It is sixty feet long by twenty two feet broad, and has a fine arched ceiling of beautiful old plaster work, made by the same English workman who made the ceilings at Muchalls and Craigievar, bearing the monograms of John, second Earl of Kinghorne, and his Countess, Margaret Erskine, daughter of the Earl of Mar, and the date 1621. The fire place is of carved freestone, measuring within the jambs about six feet high, by eight feet wide, and four feet deep. The jambs are formed of caryatides or female figures1 carved in stone, and the flat arch is built of stones so fixed into each other that they are able to support a heavy superstructure without deflection2. Earl Patrick had a great liking for this room, and speaks of it in his "Book of Record" as "my great hall which is a room that I ever loved." Three great windows, deeply embrasured in the walls, which here are eight feet in thickness, give light to the apartment. A chamber at one end of the room formed out of the thickness of the walls is called the well room. It has the circular opening for water supply from the well below. These wall chambers as already stated, are common in the Castle, and are characteristic of fifteenth and early sixteenth century buildings. 1. Their dishevelled appearance is supposed to commemorate the sufferings and death of Lady Glamis, wire of the sixth Lord, who was burned on the Castle hill of Edinburgh. 2. See "Historical Castles and Mansions of Scotland," by A. H. Millar, L.L.D. 61 At the west end of the room, in what was once a fire place, afterwards built up and now converted into a cupboard, is seen the motley dress of the old family fool or jester1. It is adorned with bells, and is probably the only complete dress of the kind in Scotland. The Glamis family retained the services of a "private buffoon" until comparatively recent times. A tradition regarding one of them used frequently to be recounted. At Castle Lyon, Longforgan, there was a famous ash tree, long known as the "Glamis tree," because it was said to have been transplanted from the policies of Glamis. On one occasion the family jester left Glamis and travelled southwards to Castle Lyon, having cut an ash sapling at the former place to assist him on the way. When he reached his destination he trimmed his trusty staff and set it up in the park at Castle Lyon as a memorial of his journey, where of course, it took root, and flourished so rapidly, that in 1796 it had attained the dimensions of a goodly tree, and became known as the "Glamish ash."2 No trace of it can now be found. An old lacquered chest stands near the cupboard above mentioned. It contains a large number of court dresses of different dates from the time of James VI., to the end of the eighteenth 1. Sir Walter Scott in "Waverley" makes the following reference to the Glamis jester: "At Glamis Castle is preserved the dress of one of the jesters, very handsome, and ornamented with many bells. It is not above thirty years since such a character stood by the sideboard of a nobleman of the first rank in Scotland, and occasionally mixed in the conversation, till he carried the joke rather too far in making proposals to one of the young ladies of the family, and publishing the banns betwixt her and himself in church." 2. See "Historical Castles and Mansions of Scotland," by A. H. Millar, L.L.D. 62 century. The collection includes dresses of ladies and children, also gentlemen's coats and habits of the above periods, some of them richly embroidered. There are also wigs of various shapes and sizes, shoes and slippers. They are in wonderful preservation. The walls of the Banqueting Hall are lined with portraits, mostly family ones. The largest and most conspicuous is that of Patrick, first Earl of Strathmore. He is shown sitting with his three sons, and pointing to the Castle he had so beautifully restored and enlarged. Another valuable portrait in the room is that of Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, attributed to Sir Peter Lely. It is the most celebrated of the portraits of that renowned soldier, and engravings of it are plentiful. It is not known how it came into the possession of the Lyon family. Claverhouse was a friend and neighbour of Earl Patrick, and probably it had been gifted to, or acquired by the latter after the death of the former at Killiecrankie. A recent biographer of Claverhouse adopts the view that the portrait was painted by Kneller, as "it bears a striking resemblance to some of Kneller's best work," further, that "Lely died in 1680 when Claverhouse was but a Captain of Horse, and considering how he in his wealthiest days even was a good manager of his private fortune, and in personal matters economical rather than profuse, it seems likely that the picture would not have been painted at the opening of his career, but rather some time subsequent to his marriage, probably between 1686 and 1688, during which years he was frequently in London, and was 63 at the zenith of his worldly prosperity."1 Napier also takes this view. The majority of experts who have studied the portrait pronounce it, however, to be the work of Lely. 2 A portrait of the ninth Earl of Strathmore is noticeable among those of the family. He was a singularly handsome and attractive man, as the portrait testifies. He married Mary Eleanor Bowes, only child of George Bowes of Streatlam Castle and Gibside, Co. Durham, in 1767. He travelled much in Spain and Portugal, and died at sea on his passage to Lisbon in 1776. Another portrait in the possession of the family is that of Ann Maxtone. She was the wife of Thomas Bowes of Streatlam, who died in 1661. Her prudence and wisdom during long years of widowhood saved the estates for her descendants. Quaint interest attaches to the portrait, perhaps the most valuable in the room, of Patrick, first Earl of Kinghorne and ninth Lord Glamis, dating from the year 1583, when he was eight years old. It is beautifully painted, and the artist is almost certainly known to be Francois Clouet, the famous Court painter of the sixteenth century at the Court of Henry II. of France, and shows the youthful lord attired in the costume of the period. He wears a tightly fitting doublet and ruff, and on his head a velvet cap richly jewelled. Dignity and sweetness 1. M. Barrington. 2. In the anonymous journey through Scotland in 1723, formerly referred to, the following reference to this is made: "In the drawing room is the best picture I ever saw of Queen Mary of Modena - the Duke of Lauderdale in his robes, by Sir Peter Lely, and the late Lord Dundee." 64 are the prevailing characteristics or the face as portrayed. On the reverse of the picture is the likeness of the private secretary of the young lord. It is also well executed and is evidently the work of the same artist. The youth is holding an ink well in his hand, and the following rhyme in old Gothic letters is seen at the side, with the name of the secretary George Boswell: - My Lord, I am at your comand, So wes my fatheris will That I shud be ane trew servad And yat I will fulfill Quhat zow comand me eik I sall do my devoir God grant me have sic skill As haid my father befoir. m. ccccc. lxxxiii. Georgius Boswell, aetatis Suae F.D. The portrait is the earliest in the family series at the Castle. Another picture of value and interest is a water colour of the Castle by the great artist, J. M. W. Turner. Old cabinets and many quaint and beautiful relics are contained in this room a fine Jacobite cup, and a miniature exquisitely painted on parchment, of one of the former lords of Glamis, may be singled out for special mention. Leaving the Banqueting Hall, the Chapel is entered. It is thirty feet long by twenty feet broad. The walls and ceiling are panelled, and are covered 65 with paintings - thirty-four in number - relating to the life of Christ and the twelve apostles. De Wet, the Dutch artist, engaged by Earl Patrick, executed these paintings in 1688. He was the individual who painted the portraits of the Stewart Kings in the gallery at Holyrood, and who gave them all a "strong family likeness" and noses like the knocker of a door." The subjects are full length pictures of: - The Saviour. St. James, major. St. John. St. Philip. St. Matthias. St. James, minor. St. Simeon. St. Thomas. St. Matthew. St. Andrew. St. Peter. together with pictures of the Last Supper, the Resurrection, the Nativity, and the Saviour with Mary Magdalene in the garden of the sepulchre. In this last scene the face and features of Our Lord are those of King Charles I., the martyr king. He wears a Cavalier's hat. The countenance of King Charles showed such a mingled expression of sweetness and dignity, and sadness, that artists of genius have often preferred to all others the head of Charles as the model of Our Saviour, so great is the character of majesty, so deep the feeling which the pale and suffering features convey to the beholder. From such a personality only could such words proceed: "I know no resolutions more worthy a Christian King than to prefer his conscience before his kingdom."1 The fifteen panels in the ceiling are thus arranged: - Shepherds of Bethlehem. Nativity. Angel and Joseph. Flight into Egypt. The Baptism. Temptation. Peter Walking on the Sea. The Woman taken in Adultery. The Transfiguration. The Syro-Phoenician Woman. Entry to Jerusalem. Gethsemane. The Kiss of Judas. The Scourging. Bearing the Cross. As already mentioned these subjects were all reproduced from the engravings in an old Bible which was in the Castle, but has now disappeared. The altar stands upon a raised platform at the east end. The quaint stone mullioned windows are filled in with stained glass by Kempe, London, the subjects being mainly scriptural incidents. The original contract between Earl Patrick and De Wet is still preserved in the charter room. It states that "Mr. de Vite Limner" shall supply painted pictures for the Chapel, and that "the fifteen largest panels shall contain the story of our Blessed Saviour, conform to 'cutts' in a Bible here in the house or in a service book, the rest of the panels in the roof to be as he shall invent, some to be filled with the Angels, 67 as in the skie and such other things as he shall invent and be esteemed proper for the work. And forasmuch as yr are upon the syde walls of the Chappell and rowme within sexteen large pannels, a doore peece and that above the table of the altar, the said Mr. De Vite does hereby bind and oblidge him to paint in als full stature as the pannels will permitt the pictures conforme as they are be found in the two books above mentioned, of our Saviour, his twelve Apostles, this in the Chappell and in the rowme within that of King Charles the Martyr, and of St. Paul and St. Stephen, ane altar piece expressing, the Crucifixion, and the doore piece the Ascension. Each picture to have the name yr of above, and at the foot a scroll containing the same words as are expressed in the 'cutts'. " The details are precisely laid down, and De Wet undertook to execute the whole of the work for £90 sterling one half "to be payed at such times as he shall call or have occasione for it at any time during the work, providing that before the payt of the full half three pairts of foure of the whole work be done, and the oyr equall half the sownes so agreed on shall be thankfullie payd at his finishing and perfecting the same." He was also to have his bed and board at the Castle whilst employed on the work, although there was no time stated for its completion. The Earl was to prepare the roof of the Chapel and such panels of the side-walls as were to be decorated with pictures, and was also to provide oil-colours, cloths, and canvas where these were required. 1 1. Earl Patrick's Diary. 68 The "roome off the Chapel" contained a portrait of "King Charles, the Martyr," and representations of St. Paul and St. Stephen, but these have now disappeared. The Chapel thus erected by Earl Patrick was dedicated in 1688. It is said that the Chapel at Glamis is the only one in Scotland, with the exception of Roslin, in which the exclusive use of the Liturgy dates from a period preceding the Revolution in 1688. Roslin and Glamis thus unite the present Episcopal Church with that of the past. The Chapel of Glamis was consecrated just on the eve of the Revolution, but as the record of its original consecration had been lost, it was rededicated in 1865 to St. Michael and all Angels, after being renovated and beautified by the late Earl Claude. It is commonly supposed that Earl Patrick built the Chapel at the Revolution period as a protest against the new form of Church government then established, but this belief is far from being correct as the Chapel was instituted and consecrated before the Revolution, although in the same year, and in erecting it the Earl had no sentiment of bitterness whatever, but was purely guided by his own personal and devout desire to raise for himself and his family an altar, where he could worship in private, and give expression to his natural feelings of piety and reverence. Leaving the Chapel by the altar door we cross a passage and enter the billiard-room, formerly the drawing-room. Old tapestry, representing scenes in the life of Nebuchadnezzar, is displayed on the wall 69 on one side of the room. Three examples only of this tapestry are known to exist. A replica is at Knole in Kent. This room is modern, and its (Here, a) PLAN OF GLAMIS CASTLE by MacGibbon and Ross. proportions are large and lofty. It is fifty feet in length. Below the tapestry, bookshelves are arranged, containing an excellent and valuable collection of works, 70 ancient and modern. A copy of the excessively rare work "The Aberdeen Breviary," compiled by Bishop Elphinston, is in the library. There are only three copies in existence. Several interesting portraits adorn the walls, including a curious one of Earl Patrick in a Roman dress. The fireplace is a splendid one, brought from the old house of Gitside at Durham. From the billiard-room we retrace our steps, and crossing the banqueting hall and ascending the great staircase in the tower, we come to a passage which leads among others to the room that Sir Walter Scott occupied when he spent the night at Glamis. The furniture and furnishings of this chamber remain as they were in the time of Scott. The room is irregular in shape, and rather dimly lighted. The old four-poster Elizabethan bed, with its faded tartan hangings, is suggestive, and the general aspect of the interior confirms the sentiments expressed by Sir Walter regarding the memorable occasion of his visit. Higher up in the tower is situated the room occupied by Prince James, "the Chevalier de St. George," when he passed a night at the Castle in 1716. The old bed he occupied and another similar to it which had been purchased by Earl Patrick, and the account of which is still in the Charter Room, were formerly in an adjoining room. The beds were four-posters and elegantly upholstered, the hangings being of rich embossed velvet and silk. They were similar in design to the well-known bed of Queen Mary at Holyrood. As already mentioned 71 an exact copy of the Chevalier's bed has been made by the Countess of Strathmore. This bed may be seen in another room in the great tower. The height of the great central tower is about one hundred feet, and a magnificent prospect may be viewed from the open promenade at the top. The whole of Strathmore lies stretched beneath. The Sidlaws on the south, and the Grampians on the north, form a bold and impressive background, while rich fertile fields and gently sloping meadows and plantations are seen as far as the eye can reach, towards Perthshire. The towns of Forfar and Kirriemuir, with their towers and smoking chimneys, stand out clear in a setting of green and gold. "And in the glack of yonder glen The wild woods wave in Airlie Den." The whole scene is at once restful and inspiring. The mental picture duly completed, the visitor descends the long staircase, noting that there are eighty six great steps of the whole one hundred and forty three, by which no less than five people can descend abreast, and at last finds himself somewhat unexpectedly at the front door. Before leaving the interior a visit might be paid to the kitchens, both old and new. The old one is a stone vaulted room in the basement, with an immense arched chimney, and only one loophole to give it light. The new kitchen is large and commodious fifty feet long, lofty, and well lighted. Leaving the Castle by the main door we give a passing glance at the old windows with their antique iron gratings, and crossing the path, we approach 72 the great sun-dial on the lawn. This dial has been classed with those of the facet-head type, as it has their distinguishing feature in a very pronounced form. It may be regarded as certainly one of the finest monumental dials in Scotland, befitting the majestic Castle beside which it stands. It consists of an octagonal base on which there are four rampant lions, each holding a dial in his fore-paws. The dial held by the lion facing the south is elliptic in shape, and measures nineteen inches by fourteen inches; the north one is round, and measures sixteen inches in diameter. The west one is rectangular, and measures fifteen-and-a-half inches high by thirteen-and-a-half inches wide; the east one is thirteen-and-a-half inches square. Between the lions there are twisted pillars with carving in the hollows, which support a canopy from which a carved neck rises up bearing the sphere-facetted globe, the facets of which are arranged in three tiers. The dimensions of the structure are: - Height from ground to platform on which lions stand, three feet seven inches; height of lions, five feet two inches; the cornice above them is twelve inches thick; from top of cornice to under side of facetted dials, three feet three-and-a-half inches high; the height of the facet-head is about three feet three-and-a-half inches, and it contains twenty-four facets, each facet containing three or four dials - eighty-four in all. The Earl's coronet, supported by four carved scrolls, is about four feet nine inches high. The total height of the dial from ground to top of coronet is thus twenty-one feet three inches. Behind the lions, in 73 the centre of the structure, there is an octagonal pillar twelve inches thick, the width of the lower step at the ground level is ten feet ten inches, and the width of the base of the structure at the level of the top of the second step is five feet four inches.1 The upper part of the dial resembles a pineapple in appearance. The dial was erected by Earl Patrick some time between 1671 and 1689. It is interesting, to note that this famous sun-dial has been set - no doubt by careful calculation - on a spot exactly three degrees west of the meridian of Greenwich. True local time there is therefore twelve minutes later than Greenwich time. "There is in the garden a fine dyal, and there is a designe for a fountain in the boulin green." "Another of the gates is adorned with two gladiators." 2 The fountain has disappeared; the gladiators still adorn the gate which was removed and now guards the entrance to the north avenue. The local tradition is, that the naked gladiators with hands outstretched signified defiance of Argyll, during whose rebellion Earl Patrick was commissioned to provide stores for the troops that had been called out to suppress it. In the court there formerly were four leaden statues on pedestals: - James VI. in his royal robe, Charles I. in his spurs and sword, Charles II. in a Roman dress, and James II. as at Whitehall. When the court was demolished the statues disappeared, but two of them, those of 1. "Proceedings of Society of Antiquaries," vol.xii., p.161. 2. "Glamis Book of Record." The "Archers' Stones" are situated in this neighbourhood. They mark what was the "Bow Butts," or place where the pastime of archery was practised in former days. 74 James VI. and Charles I, together with a leaden Venus, were found in recent times sadly mutilated (Here a sketch of) THE DUTCH GARDEN, from Sketch by Mrs. Stirton. in one of the vaulted cellars of the basement. They have been repaired and set upon pedestals, the two 75 Kings at the foot of the avenue in front of the Castle, and the Venus in one of the shrubberies. Gardens and vineries at some distance from the Castle, and on the banks of the River Dean, were made by the late Earl and Countess many years ago, and more recently at the side of the east wing a sunk or Dutch garden was laid out. Certain features in the wall which encloses it on three sides resemble those of the famous walled garden at Edzell Castle. In the centre is a fountain, with a beautiful bronze figure of Mercury upon a stone pedestal. On the lawn in front of this garden stand three splendid yew trees said to be three hundred years old. In 1907 1910 a portion of the shrubbery on the other side of the path beyond the sunk garden was formed into a beautiful autumn garden by the present Earl and Countess. The work has been carried out entirely by Glamis workmen, who have well upheld the traditional reputation for ability of the craftsmen of the parish. In planning the details the Countess took a special and active interest, and the success of the undertaking has been in large measure due to her help and guidance. The garden is an oblong, nearly two acres in extent, and enclosed by a yew hedge which has now grown to a great size and forms a complete enclosing wall or screen to the garden. Along one side is a fine herbaceous border, while on the other and corresponding one is a terrace with gazebos or summer houses of stone at each end. These have high, almost conical roofs, and corbels of machicolated work, and from both of them a pleasing view 76 of the interior can be obtained. The general plan of the garden is strictly formal, in keeping with the style of the period, when the Castle and policies were remodelled by Earl Patrick. In the centre of the herbaceous border there is a large stone basin lined with blue mosaics, in the middle of which a fountain plays, while on the terrace opposite is a raised stone seat, displaying on the back the crest of the Lyon family, and approached by a broad flight of steps. The beautifully carved stone vases, the wrought iron gateways, the quaint looking wooden seats, all were made by local men, and the garden is consequently not only "a place of all delights," but a standing memorial of the artistic skill and ingenuity of those who fashioned it. A recording tablet of stone, also made locally, has been placed on the wall in one of the gazebos. Beneath the monograms of the Earl and Countess the following inscription appears: - 77 78 Such then, in brief outline, is the story of Glamis old Castle, a story of change and chance, of hope and despair, of light and shadow, yet, withal of progress. What a message its hoary walls tell out day by day! So long as poetry, romance, religion, have a place in Scottish life and character, the Castle of dim memories, of secrets and haunting shadows, crowned with the beauty and dignity of years, will win men's hearts by a mysterious fascination, and stir them to their very depths. 79 80 THE EARLY CHURCH OF GLAMIS 81 82 THE EARLY CHURCH OF GLAMIS. "In the antique of bow and spear, And feudal rapine, clothed with iron mail, Came ministers of peace, intent to rear The Mother Church in yon sequestered vale." Wordsworth. History is silent regarding the parish of Glamis until the beginning of the eighth century, when the figure of the Celtic Saint Fergus looms through the darkness and obscurity of those early days, and, although much that is legendary and mythical is associated with his person and work, still there can be no doubt that he did actually exist, and exercised an influence for good among the rude aborigines of the district. The story of St. Fergus, like those of so many of the early Scottish Celtic Saints, became garbled in later medieval times. It was the practice of the Church of Rome in those days to give a Roman or Papal colouring to all Christian work or activity which had been carried on at a time previous to the Roman supremacy. This was notably the case in Scotland. The reason for such action on the part of Rome was obvious. Her power 83 became magnified in the eyes of the people. The more ancient her claim to authority the greater was the reverence paid to her. A Roman dressing was given to all ancient Celtic traditions, and the holy places which were the scene of noble Christian effort on the part of the followers of St. Ninian, St. Kentigern, or St. Columba, and of lesser saints such as St. Fergus, were taken possession of by the emissaries of Rome, whose business it was to impress upon the people how thoroughly Roman in sympathy those high minded, self sacrificing Celtic saints were. The old traditions of the Celtic saints were changed and garbled to suit Roman ambitions. Stories were introduced of missions to Rome, with wondrous miraculous interventions and interpositions, and a credulous public imbued with the proverbial religious superstition of the Celt proved only too ready to believe and appreciate what appealed to the sense of awe and mystery. The prestige of Rome thus rapidly advanced, until gradually the belief became universal that all early Christian work in Scotland was the result of Roman activity and zeal. At the same time we must not forget that the Church of Rome carried aloft the torch of Christianity through all the medieval time, with its light and shade, and we, to day, have inherited the blessing. Fergus, or Fergusianus, according to the legend, was for many years a bishop in Ireland in the eighth century, and then came to the confines of Strogeth, in Perthshire, where he founded three churches.1 1. The three churches were those of Strogeth, Blackford, and Dolpatrick. 84 Thence he went to Caithness, where for some time he occupied himself in converting the barbarous people. After that he visited Buchan, resting in a place called Lungley, where he built a basilica, dedicated to himself. Then he came to Glamis, where he consecrated a tabernacle to the God of Jacob, and where he died, full of years. His bones were afterwards enshrined in a tomb of marble and his head taken with all due honour to the monastery of Scone, where many miracles were performed. At Strogeth in Strathearn, as mentioned above, and in the immediate neighbourhood, are three churches dedicated to St. Patrick, and which were founded by St. Fergus, which would seem to show that the founder was a follower of St. Patrick. In Caithness, the churches of Wick and Halkirk are dedicated to St. Fergus. In Buchan, the village called in the legend Lungley, is now named St. Fergus, and at Glamis we have his cave and well. The well is situated in the Den of Glamis, beneath a bank which is half hidden by shrubs and trees, the spreading branches of which well nigh touch the surface of the Glamis Burn, the "never, for ever" unceasing murmur of which falls upon the ears like a low strain of solemn music. Turning to the left, a little grotto is reached, the rocky sides of which shelters a well of clear water, which rises almost immediately from the soil beneath, and has formed for itself a natural cavity or basin, the sides of which are now overhung with sedge and lichen. This is the well of the saint who lived and died at Glamis, and who, tradition avers, baptised the earliest 85 converts to Christianity in Strathmore in this well. The cave in which the saint lived was situated beside the well, and old people in the parish used to tell the writer when he went first to Glamis, that they remembered seeing it. It disappeared when renewed operations were instituted at the lead mine in the vicinity. As we stand by the brink of the little pool, we confess to a feeling of satisfaction that this relic of early days, small though it is, has been allowed to survive the centuries of ecclesiastical strife and struggle, untouched by the hand of the vandal. We cannot but feel thankful that this link with the old Celtic Church still remains, to assure us of the continuity of our faith, the unity of spirit amid change and chance which has been the leading power and force in moulding and developing our Scottish National Church. The environment of the well is in keeping with its sacred associations. The Den of Glamis is a sequestered retreat where "the idle may be tempted to become studious and the studious to grow idle; where the grave may find matters to make them gay, and the gay subjects for gravity," where the unfettered loveliness of wood and shrub and stream seems to unite with the "gloomy grandeur of crags, knolls and mounds, confusedly hurled" to present a scene of quaint as well as natural beauty, that in summer and autumn is "surpassing fair." On the summit of the bank we get a glimpse of the tower of the old ivy covered church, around which countless generations "sleep the sleep that knows not breaking," the wimpling burn singing their endless 86 lullaby.1 In front, a rustic bridge leads to a winding path which follows the burn all the way down until it meets the "Dowie Dean," close by the old castle. Above us, but not in sight, stands the Manse in its old garden, surrounded by a stretch of swelling lawn, enclosed and guarded from the wintry winds by evergreen hedges and majestic old trees. One is glad to find the ancient stone with the Celtic cross engraved, carrying the mind back to mysterious days with their wealth of tradition and legend, still standing in front of the Manse. The scene is suggestive in its solemn impressiveness, and casts a shade of melancholy not unpleasing over the mind. The spirit of the ages indeed is here. It is the "genius loci." The statement that the head of St. Fergus was preserved at Scone is confirmed by entries in the accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland of payments by King James IV. for the repair of the silver case for it: - The King, accompanied by Pate Sinclair, the Squire of Cleish, Alexander Law and Willie Strang, falconers, the four Italian minstrels and the "More Taubroner," Andrew Stewart, the Duke of Albany's son, and others set out from Dunfermline upon his usual autumn pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Duthus at Tain, on 11th October 1504. On reaching Perth (St. Johnstoun), the King made gifts of 11 shillings 1. The old churchyard of Glamis is peculiarly rich in epitaphs in doggerel rhyme. These were composed chiefly by Mr. Robert Smith, Schoolmaster in Glamis, in the first half of the eighteenth century. He is known to fame as author of a metrical version of the Shorter Catechism, published in 1729. to the "Gray Freris of Sanct Johnestoun," of 13 shillings to the "preistis there," and of 28 shillings to the "Blak Freres and Quhit Freris there." He also got his hat mended in Perth and bought a new pair of gloves as witness - "Item, To Thomas Boswell to by taffeti to the Kingis hat in Sanct Johnstoun . . . xixs." "Item, to ane man brocht gluffis to the King in Sanct Johnestoun be the Kingis command . . . ixs." The King then visited Scone - "Item, to the masons of Scone, in drink silver be the Kingis command . . ." At the same time he made an offering of 14s. for the repair of the silver case containing St. Fergus's head: "Item, to the Kingis offerand to Sanct Fergus hede, in Scone . . . xiiijs." Again in 1506 we find that on 28th September the King made a similar offering: "Item, the xxvij day of September, to the Kingis offerand to Sanct Fergus hede in Scone . . . xviijs." (18 shillings). Reviewing the legend in the light of the contemporary evidence, we are forced to the conclusion that there were several saints of the name of Fergus, and that the life experiences of these various saints have been all mixed up and applied to the Fergus of Glamis, according to the fashion of the Roman Church, of a later time, and for reasons of her own. What happened probably is this: The Abbey of Scone, which was situated in the chief seat of the kingdom, and which was founded in the Celtic period, and, after the conversion of the Pictish King Nechtan to Rome in 710 A.D., was dedicated to the Holy Trinity, became in later Roman times previous 88 to 1488, singularly destitute of relics of old saints. The monks felt that the Abbey was behind its contemporaries in this respect. They had heard of the grave of St. Fergus at Glamis. They rifled it. The head went to Scone and an arm to Aberdeen. The scribe, either of Scone or Aberdeen, was called upon, after the fashion of the time, to write up an account of St. Fergus to justify the new cultus of his relics. Probably the scribe came from Aberdeen, because he designated the Saint "Fergusianus" instead of "Fergus" or "Feargie," his colloquial name in Angus. Now "Fergusain" (Fergan), is the name in the eighth century list of one of St. Donnan's disciples. He went with St. Donnan to "Cathania" (Sutherland and Caithness) and apparently visited Halkirk (the old cathedral seat), where he has been confused with an earlier Fergus who visited Caithness (including Halkirk and Wick). The names of these men are distinct colloquially. One is "Fergan" and the other "Fergus." How did the scribe get hold of the name "Fergusian" and impose it on "Fergus" or "Feargie" of Angus? The Abbots of Scone, from the twelfth century, owned the Church of Kildonan. They visited it and served it with Vicars from Scone. Fergusian was commemorated here and in the vicinity. The scribe of the cultus sketch collected items about all the Fergus Saints he had heard of, North and South, and slumped them under the name of Fergusianus, and imposed this name as an alternative for Fergus of Glamis. This is how the legend of Fergusianus was constructed and imposed upon the Saint of 89 Glamis. One of the keys to understanding, the position and work of Fergus of Glamis is the correct reading of the inscription on the Drosten stone at St. Vigeans, near Arbroath.1 Some legal "idiot" in Angus has recently been taking a "rise" out of historians and antiquarians about this inscription, and, meanwhile, most people in consequence are shying clear of it. In the judgment of the writer the inscription on the Drosten stone is not only genuine, but carved by a Pictish Celt who was used to the minuscule script of the time in the scripture manuscripts. The only defensible reading is that of Mr. Macrae given on page 333, vol. XLIII., of the "Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, Scotland" - (Stone of) Drosten (a genitive) is undoubted. "Elt Forcus" is also indisputable. Forcus is not a genitive and the words are old Pictish for Pater Fergus - "His foster father was Fergus." This is just the position that Drosten of St. Vigeans and Glen Esk might have occupied in relation to St. Fergus of Glamis. The association marks out what Fergus of Glamis certainly was, from the tradition of his establishment, being the head of a little Celtic "Muinntir" or community, teaching Celtic clerics, the people around him, and training others to carry on his work. In Adam King's Calendar, the Saint of Glamis is entered as having lived "under King Conran." There was no such king either of the Pictish federation 1. The inscription in full on the Drosten stone is as follows: - "Drosten: ipe Voret Elt Forcus." The parents of Drosten of Angus were known to have been "noble" and he was given up to be "fostered." 90 or of the Dalriad Scots. This was simply a device of the later church to appropriate Brito-Pictish Saints. His date is griven as "505 A.D.," which belongs to the earlier St. Fergus of Buchan and Caithness. Such a date is of course denied by the stone at Glamis, apart from historical considerations. The Celtic stones at St. Vigeans and Glamis speak for themselves by their markings and symbols - they belong to the same period Ninth or early Tenth century when the interlaced work, as executed on the crosses of the stones at the Manse of Glamis, at Cossins and at Thornton in Glamis, and on the Drosten stone and fragments of others at St. Vigeans, was peculiarly rich and involved, the three cusps shown at the junctions of the arms of the cross on the Manse stone being a unique feature. The symbols incised and in relief engraved upon the slabs also belong to that class which is only seen upon Celtic stones in the North East of Scotland,1 displaying not only the Byzantine character (suggesting, as it does, the influence of the Greek 1. Some of these symbols were probably suggested by one of the "Divine Bestiaries" works which were common and popular modes of moral and religious symbolism from the sixth to the twelfth centuries. When the Bestiary informs us that the centaur is the man-animal and represents the warfare between the spirit and the flesh, and that the osprey, which eats the good fish, is the man of pure and holy life feeding on the Son of God, we perceive how the one (centaur) was fitly introduced or, the stone at Glamis Manse and the other (osprey) on the stone at St. Vigeans. The serpent on the stone at Glamis Manse, which is of the pictorial convoluted kind without the rod, as it appears on many others, is in such a position and association as would seem to imply that it is used as a symbol and not as a mere ornament. The stag in the Bestiary symbolised the soul thirsting for the Water of Life - "As pants the hart for water brooks." Hence the stag on the Glamis Manse stone. These "Divine Bestiaries" are found in various forms and in different languages. Copies of them, in prose and verse, illustrated with quaint and curious drawings, are preserved in various libraries on the Continent. The texts are mostly in Latin and old French. The fish which is incised on the obverse of the Glamis Manse stone is a very early Christian symbol. In the days or the persecutions under Nero, the Roman Emperor, it was a secret sign between Christians. When a Christian met a Christian he drew a rough outline of a fish with his staff in the roadway. Only a Christian could understand it. The word "Fish" in Greek is "Ichthus," and the letters of this word form an acrostic, each letter in turn the first in those words in Greek - "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour." 91-92 or Eastern Church, which was peculiarly strong, in Scotland in the eighth century), but also the lingering influence of local Pagan cults. The conviction is strong that the stone in front of the Manse of Glamis, which combines all the best and most beautiful features of the Celtic stones of the period and neighbourhood, was raised in memory of the saint whose life was spent in teaching the people of Glamis the principles of the Gospel. The stone may not have been placed immediately after his death, and may not be situated upon the exact spot where the saint was buried. It was customary to inscribe monumental crosses to venerated saints centuries after their death. One such monument in Ireland is inscribed as the Cross of Patrick and Columba. It was a cross reared in their honour and to promote their veneration not a sepulchral memorial placed over a grave which contained their remains. As the style of the Drosten stone and the one at Glamis Manse might be regarded as later than that of the period in which St. Drosten and St. Fergus lived, these monuments might probably be purely commemorative of these because they were 92 venerated there. Chroniclers of the eighteenth century, such as Gordon and Pennant, and, later, Knox, author of "The Topography of the Basin of the Tay," speak of the stone now at Glamis Manse as being in the churchyard. At one time the churchyard was larger than it is at present, and very probably it included the ground on which the present Manse is situated. Within recent years, when digging operations were necessary, relics of burials were found near the Manse gate and beneath the road that runs between the Manse and the Church. The natural inference is that the churchyard extended over a much larger area than it does at present, and included what is now the Manse garden. Perhaps, therefore, the statement "in the churchyard" would be a true description of the situation of the stone, although it was standing then where it is now. On the other hand it may have been removed from the present churchyard and erected where it now stands at present, at a time subsequent to Pennant's visit, and before Dr. Lyon wrote his Statistical Account, as the latter describes it in 1791 as being in front of the Manse. Jervise, the well known antiquary, conducted excavations at the base of the stone in 1855, but nothing was found. Some years before the writer went to Glamis as minister, a fragment of an old Celtic stone was found in a grave in the old churchyard. It had a portion of a Celtic cross of interlaced work engraved upon it, and no doubt the other portions of the stone are lying buried in the grave from which this portion was dug. The writer had this 93 fragment photographed and wrote a description of it to the Society of Antiquaries, Edinburgh. He placed the fragment for preservation in the enclosure behind the mortuary chapel. In one of his recent visits to the churchyard he entered the enclosure, but there was no trace of this precious fragment. Let us hope it has not been lost or destroyed. Other stones and fragments of stone with Celtic work engraven upon them were found on the floor of the church during its recent renovation. Knowing as we now do that the sites on which cross slabs exist were places of worship in Celtic times, we may well feel impressed by the thought that for 1200 years Christian worship has been held and communion celebrated on this sacred and historic spot in Glamis, without intermission, from the days of St. Fergus to the present time. We can picture the saint in the long dress of the ecclesiastic, richly embroidered in loose short boots, and carrying a crosier and book satchel, as portrayed on the fragment of a Celtic stone of large size at St. Vigeans, with head tonsured after the Roman fashion. The tonsure of the Celtic Church was from ear to ear, in a semi circle over the frontal portion of the head, and this was one of the points in which the Church of our forefathers differed from the prevailing custom of European Christendom. The Celtic Church, however, adopted the coronal tonsure of the European Church in the first half of the eighth century. No doubt the saint sent out many clerics besides St. Drosten to neighbouring glens and hills to impress Christian truth upon the minds of the simple 94 dwellers, as Forfarshire or Angus is peculiarly rich in relics of that Celtic period. No record exists to tell what the Church of Glamis at that time as a building was like, but it would, of course, be Celtic, with certain Romanesque features. This style of architecture was as interesting in itself as any of the minor local styles in any part of the world, and so far as at present known was quite peculiar to the Celtic people. None of the buildings were large, though the ornaments of many of them were of great beauty and elegance. Their interest lies in their singularly local character and in their age, which probably extended from the fifth or sixth century to the eleventh century in Scotland. No church of this period, now remaining, is perhaps even sixty feet in length, and generally they are very much smaller, the most common dimensions being from twenty to forty feet. Increase of magnificence was sought more by extending the number than by augmenting the size. The favourite number for a complete ecclesiastical establishment was seven, as in Greece, this number being identical with that of the seven Apocalyptic Churches of Asia. Thus there were seven in Glendalough, seven at Cashel, seven at Lerins, an island in the Mediterranean opposite Cannes, and on the islands of the Outer Hebrides in Scotland there are still remains of similar Celtic edifices, the small Celtic oratory on the island of Inchcolm in the Forth being of like character. None of the earliest churches were Basilicas, being undivided into aisles, either by stone or wooden pillars, or possessing an apse, and no circular church has 95 yet been found. In Greece and Ireland and in the Hebrides of Scotland the smallness of the churches is remarkable. They never were, in fact, basilicas for the assembly of large congregations of worshippers, but oratories where the priest could celebrate the Divine mysteries for the benefit of the laity. They were simple rectangular buildings, with low doorways with sloping jambs, and with one small window inclining to the triangle in shape at the eastern end. It must be noted, however, that the circular domical dwellings which are in the western islands constructed of loose stones in horizontal layers, approaching one another till they meet at the apex, like the old so called treasuries of the Greeks or the domes of the Jains in India, are older than the churches. The Celtic Church in Glamis no doubt stood on the site of the present church, as it was the unfailing custom in the later time after the Norman Conquest of England to build new and more elaborate Norman buildings in the Romanesque style, and later still in the Gothic manner, on the same spot rendered sacred to the people by its associations with the worship of their forefathers of former Celtic generations. Although nothing remains of the Celtic Church in Glamis, there is an edifice in the neighbourhood of the period of St. Fergus, and combining both Celtic and Romanesque features, which might probably give indication of what the early church of Glamis was like in appearance. At Restenneth, within six or seven miles (east) of Glamis, a church was built in the eighth century, contemporary 96 with the life of St. Fergus. All that remains of this ancient church most probably the oldest in Scotland - is the lower portion of the tower which bears distinct evidence of its Celtic origin, as well as <<SKETCH OF TOWER>> SOUTH DOORWAY OF TOWER OF RESTENNETH displaying some characteristics of the style known as Romanesque. This church is so peculiarly interesting, and as in many ways it was associated with Glamis in early 97 times, it might not be out of place to give an outline of its history here. Nechtan, King, of the Picts, lived at Dunnichen (Dun Nechtan) in the eighth century. At the same time as Nechtan ruled, the "Vererable Bede was <<SKETCH>> ARCHWAY IN EAST WALL OF TOWER from Sketch by Mrs. Stirton. writing in his cell, at Jarrow, the ecclesiastical history of the Angles, when he was led to describe an incident in which the Pictish King took an important part. Nechtan had been an observer of the changes in ecclesiastical rites and customs that had taken place 98 in neighbouring countries. He therefore sent messengers to the Abbot of Monkwearmouth, in Northumbria, requesting him to let him know on what day the Paschal feast should be kept, and what the proper form of tonsure should be, Adding that he would follow the Roman custom which the Abbot Ceolfrid advocated as far as it was possible for him to do so. Bede states that the arguments the Abbot sent to Nechtan were so convincing and overpowering that the king at once adopted the new cycle for calculating the time of Easter, and the coronal tonsure as well. Nechtan, however, made another important request of Abbot Ceolfrid. He had heard of the splendid churches which Benedict Biscop had founded in Northumbria, and was filled with ambition that he himself should build a similar one in Scotland. He therefore solicited Ceolfrid to send him skilled masons who would build for him a church "after the Roman manner" and in honour of St. Peter, the chief of the Apostles. The Abbot complied with the request, and accordingly workmen were sent. Various lines of evidence converge in demonstrating that Restenneth was the church that was built, and it is known that at the same time St. Boniface, who was at the head of a Roman Mission to Scotland, visited Nechtan and baptised him according to the rites of Rome. The tower of Restenneth is regarded by experts as older than the well known round towers at Brechin and Abernethy. The narrow south doorway is similar to those in these towers, but much more archaic in appearance. The round arch opening from the base of the tower into the church, on the other 99 hand, is Romanesque in character and bears out the words used by Bede, "After the Roman manner." The windows in the tower, with their sloping jambs and triangular heads, are distinctly Celtic in style. The tower must have been one of the earliest in this country. If it had been a campanile or bell tower it must have been built, however, after A.D. 780, as that is the date of the earliest campaniles on the Continent. It may not, however, have been a bell tower, but a receptacle, as the round towers were, first of all, for the church valuables, placed there for safety at the time of the Danish and other invasions. In Restenneth we thus see the transition from the Celtic to the Roman style of architecture. It must be noted, however, that the spire of the tower is of much later date probably fifteenth century. Previous to the period of stone churches, it may be mentioned, the "Mos Scotorum" style prevailed1; namely buildings of wood and wattle, such as St. Columba used at Iona. Afterwards simple rectangular stone edifices, such as in the Hebrides, were raised, but the "Mos Scotorum" continued in many places. St. Bernard has recorded the mocking speech with which the Irish-Scots reproached St. Malachy on his departure from their old customs by founding an oratory of stone at Bangor. Reginald of Durham relates an incident which shows something of the same temper in the Scots of Galloway. The "Mos Romanorum" style succeeded the foregoing, stone being the material used in the "Basilica" or a building in the Roman manner. Even then, in remote places, the "Wood 1. Archaeologia Scotica. 100 and Wattle" custom continued, and sometimes, the simple rectangular stone edifice, but these gradually gave way to the Romanesque, and finally to that form of it called the Norman. Various facts which we gather from charters and records agree in proving the early value and importance of Restenneth, as if it inherited an unusual devotional regard. It was the mother church of Forfar, where a chapel, subject to it, had been erected at an early period, and it continued to be the parish church of Forfar till the close of the sixteenth century. In early medieval times the edifice became the church of a priory or monastery of Augustinian Canons, and the ruined choir of early Pointed Gothic dates from that period - the twelfth or thirteenth century. King William the Lion conferred the monastery upon the monks of Jedburgh, of which it became a cell, and here they deposited their most valuable records and treasures, because these were in perpetual danger from the incursions of the English, Jedburgh being so near the English border. Royal interest in Restenneth is manifested by the many charters granted by the Kings of Scotland, from King Malcolm Canmore to Robert the Bruce - whose son was buried within its walls - and David II., who confirmed the charters granted by his Royal predecessors. The connection between Glamis and Restenneth in those early times must have been the closest, as Glamis was a royal residence, and from records we know that the sovereigns gave many gifts for its maintenance. A number of twelfth - 101 century charters relating to Restenneth and its mother church at Jedburgh, were in the Charter Room at Glamis Castle, thus proving how intimately the two places were associated. These have now disappeared. Such being the case, St. Fergus, who lived at the same time as the founding of the church of Restenneth, might possibly have been actuated to rear a similar edifice at Glamis, the seat of his ministry. No trace, however, of any such building, if it ever existed, remains. Among the many Glamis legends is one relating to the monks of St. Fergus, who were said to be buried in what is now the garden surrounding the Manse. According to the story, the monks descend at the mid hour of night to partake of spiritual refreshment, and to renew their holy vows at the well of their founder. The pattering of their feet, it is alleged, may be heard on the green at the hour stated, as they hasten to fulfil their pious intentions, and to exchange their ghostly counsels. However that may be, the people of Glamis do not appear to be seriously depressed by the tale or by similar weird anecdotes concerning "Dulies" near the Hunter's Hill, or the "Grey Ladye" who is regularly seen in the vicinity of the Manse. At interesting periods of their lives the villagers used to visit the "wishing well" of St. Fergus, as they called it, and indulge in dream fancies and dim imaginings. As the wish is father to the thought, they believed in a vague and perhaps superstitious kind of way that the saint would grant them their heart's desire. In any case, this gentle custom was often 102 practised, not without a touch of humour, too, which rendered the tryst of St. Fergus a favourite and attractive one for all. The writer appends a list of the various saints of the name of Fergus, which will help to show how the life record of some of them had been confused with that of St. Fergus of Glamis: Name Type Stated Date Locality St. Fergus Missionary Saint. Beginning of Candida Casa Sixth Century. Caithness and Buchan. St. Fergus. Hermit Teacher. Friend and Con- Carnoch and Airth. temporary of St. Mungo. St. Fergus of Hermit Teacher. --- Inverness, Moy District. Dalaronie. St. Fergusain. Missionary Friend and About 617. Kildonan, possibly also Helper of St. Donnan. Halkirk. St. Fergus. Local Bishop amongst Eighth --- "Cruitneach" the Irish. Century. (Irish Pict.) The above is identified as the Bishop who signs 'Fergustus Ep. Scotia" (Ireland) at a Roman Council in 1721 A.D. St. Fergus of Head of a Small Com- --- After the founding of Glamis. munity of Celtic Clerics. St. Vigeans, late in the Seventh Century. The feast day of Fergus "Cruitneach" of Ireland was 8th September. The day of Fergusain was in the second week of December. Afterwards, in the Calendar drawn up on the eve of the Reformation, the scribe slumped all the saints' days into one celebration on the 17th November. From the above summary we may learn that distant and remote from Continental sources of life and culture as the Celtic inhabitants of Glamis were, yet, 103 when the Christian message came to them from beyond the seas they received it gladly, and, far from being repelled by its "Foreign Orientalism", they were fascinated by its beauty, finding in it a glamour and a glory that were mysterious and irresistible. "Opening the windows Eastwards" they beheld the "Vision of the Son of Man, the King in His Beauty, and were changed into the same image from Glory unto Glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord." The connection between Glamis and St. Vigeans, initiated by St. Fergus and St. Drosten was continued in the Medieval period by the splendid Abbey founded at Arbroath in the twelfth century, which supplanted St. Vigeans. The Church of Glamis was an appanage of this Abbey for centuries, until the dawn of the Reformation. In 1178, William the Lion granted the church of "Glampnes," with its chapels and lands, to the Abbey of Arbroath1. Various charters dating from this time to 1233, and granted by the Bishops of St. Andrews, and Popes Lucius and Innocent, confirmed this grant. In the early Roman period, the Church became a Vicarage in the diocese of St. Andrews, and was dedicated in 1242 by Bishop David of St. Andrews to St. Fergus, the patron saint. No record exists of the situation or general character of that early building. The presumption is that it was in the early Pointed style of Gothic, like other ecclesiastical edifices of the period. It was undoubtedly Cruciform, and most probably was 1. "Registruus vetus de Aberbrothoc." 104 the identical church which was taken down in 1792. In 1249, Bishop David required the Vicar of "Glaumes" to found a chapel at Clova, and to give the monks of Arbroath, annually, the sum of one hundred shillings. The Bishop granted to the Vicar, however, two years afterwards, twenty shillings for the expenses of the sacrament at Clova, as it was so far distant from Glaumes (twenty miles). King Robert the Bruce, then in residence at Forfar, confirmed by a charter dated 1322, the gift of Glammes, to the Abbey of Arbroath. In the fifteenth century, Isabella Ogilvy, wife of Patrick Lyon, the first Lord Glamis, "built the ille in the kirk of Glams, wherein, with her first husband who died in 1459, she was interred in anno 1484, as the inscription upon the tomb bears witness." This Aisle or Chantry Chapel stands in the old churchyard of Glamis, on the south side of the present church, but a little apart from it, and most likely had been attached as a south transept to the former or Pre Reformation church, which was cruciform in shape, and which was demolished in 1792. Beneath the pavement in the interior of this edifice, is situated the burial vault of the noble family of Lyon, where many of the House of Strathmore during the past 400 years have been interred, including Patrick Lyon, the first Lord Glamis, who died on 21st March 1459, and in memory of whom the chapel was built by his widow, Isabella Ogilvy, daughter of Sir Walter Ogilvy of Lintrathen. Lady Glamis died on the 12th January 1484, and was buried beside her husband, as already stated above. 105 The Chapel is an oblong in the second Pointed style of Gothic, prevalent in the fifteenth century, measuring thirty five feet four inches by twenty six feet seven inches in outside measurement, and twenty-nine feet four inches in length inside, nineteen feet ten inches in breadth, and seventeen feet in height to the top of the arch, and is lighted by one embrasured window, the tracery of which is fifteenth century Gothic in design. The mullions of this window distinctly show the influence of the Perpendicular style of Gothic which became common in England at that period, and, later, was sometimes known as "Tudor Gothic." There are traces of this style in a of the windows in a few of the windows in Melrose Abbey, but, with exception of these, there are no other examples, so far as is generally known, of this English style in any other ecclesiastical building in Scotland. The Flamboyant or French style of Gothic tracery, owing to the Franco Scottish Alliance, was the prevailing one at that time, the feeling in the North of the Border being strong against England. The first Lord Glamis, in whose memory the Chapel was built, having been detained in England for some years, may possibly have been imbued with English ideas in Architecture; as exemplified in the tracery of this highly interesting window. It is indeed a charming piece of work. The doorway beneath the window is modern on the face of it, and the wall, though old in itself, shows traces, of having been, renewed or renovated at some time. The protecting ridge, or plinth of 106 dressed stone along the wall, and some feet from the ground, is still in good preservation a device common in medieval times to prevent water gathering at the foot of the wall. The lock has the following inscription E.S.1742 probably the date when the door was made. On the roof above the window the figure of a lion holding a shield is perched, and on the wall beneath this figure is fixed a dial dated 1771. It is set upon a carved stone base, which appears to be of much older date than the dial, and which perhaps had formerly been the pedestal of a figure of some kind. At the other and corresponding end of the roof there is a figure resembling a griffin, also bearing a shield displaying a lion rampant. The interior is in a good state of preservation. It is not used for services now, although at one time it was a Chantry Chapel, where masses were said or sung for the repose of the souls of the departed, at the side altar, which stood near the "Sacrament House," or recess, where the reserved sacrament was kept, and which may still be seen in fine preservation. The arch of this ambry is of Ogee pattern, and displays shields bearing arms. That on the left bears the lion of Glamis, while the one on the right bears the lion of Glamis and the lion (standing) of Ogilvy impaled. The former represents the shield of Patrick, first Lord Glamis, the latter, that of Isabella Ogilvy, his wife. The Sacrament House has the appearance of being older than the building itself. The floor of the chapel throughout is paved with stone flags, and not far from the door is a padlocked iron bar over a stone, whence a flight of steps leads to the 107 vault beneath. The roof is of stone and beautifully groined and vaulted. The bosses, corbels, and key stones, where the arches meet, are richly carved. Exhibiting a variety of designs, some with coronets, some with the lions of Glamis, or with the Glamis and Ogilvy lions impaled, and others with grapes in bold relief. There are arches of dressed stone on each wall. These are now filled in with masonry. On one of the slabs forming the pavement is an inscription, now illegible, save the words "Hic jacet DMS....gilelms....Glms" in Gothic letters, and on the centre of the stone a cup, or chalice, and a cross are engraved, suggesting that the individual buried below was an ecclesiastic. The writer cannot discover whether any of the barons of Glamis held an ecclesiastical appointment, but the possession of ecclesiastical property or lands may have given the right to assume the above sacred symbols. A plain altar shaped tomb stands beside a pillar from which springs a semi circular arch so common a feature in old Scottish churches which opened out into the chancel of the church. The pillar is octagonal, and its capital is carved in high relief, with a running design of vine leaves and grapes, while a shield with a lion rampant, delicately chiselled, occupies a higher ridge and dominates the whole border. The pillar is unusually short, and one is consequently led to believe that the stone pavement had been raised at one time to add to the accommodation below. The tomb beside the pillar bears an inscription in Gothic letters, showing, that it had been placed in memory of Patrick Lyon, the first Lord Glamis, who 108 died in 1459, and of Isabella Ogilvy, his wife, daughter of Ogilvy of Auchterhouse, who was interred beside her husband in 1484. As already mentioned, it was this lady who built the aisle and tomb shortly after her husband's death, in memory of him, her own name being afterwards added to the inscription. There can be no difficulty, therefore, in dating the aisle. It must have been built sometime between 1459 and 1484. Whether the entire church, to which Lady Glamis added this aisle or transept, was built at that time, or belonged to a previous date, there is no record to show. The inscription on the tomb is as follows: - Patricius . Lyon . quoda . DMS . de . Glams miles . qui . obiit . xxi . d mesis . marcij . an . dmi . m.cccc . lix . . . hic . . . Isobella . Ogilvy . sposa . et . q . . . obiit . xii . d . ianuarii . ano . dmi . lxxxiiii . orate . pro . coel . . . (Here rest Sir Patrick Lyon, Lord of Glamis, who died 21 March 1459, and Isabella Ogilvy, his wife, who died 12 January 1484. Pray for their souls now in heaven). Lord Glamis was the first of the title, and was one of the hostages sent to England as security for the ransom of James the First of Scotland. In front of this tomb there is a stone slab forming part of the pavement, upon which the remains of an inscription and of two sculptured shields may be traced. It is the tombstone of John, the third Lord Glamis, and his lady, Elizabeth Scrymgeour of Dudhope. He died on 1st April 1497. 109 The inscription is greatly obliterated, but the following words can be deciphered: . . . elizab . . . scrmgeour . . . aprils an . . . m.ccc . . . nonages . . Standing within this solemn chapel we recall Sir Walter Scott's memorable words when describing a similar edifice of similar date.1 "There are twenty Barons bold lie buried within this proud chapelle . . . . . Each Baron for a sable shroud sheathed in his iron panoply; and each was buried there with Candle, with Book, and with Knell." The charm and beauty of this chapel are very appealing to the aesthetic sense. The very silence is eloquent. The sound of human foot is almost sacrilege. Mystery is here, within those walls, but with it, Beauty, the "Beauty of Holiness." "A thing of Beauty is a joy for ever," says the poet Keats, and the same gentle poet who wrote these words has also said for our learning and remembrance:- "Beauty is Truth, Truth Beauty; That is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know," David, Abbot of Arbroath, let the lands of the Chapel of Clova, annexed to Glamis in the year 1486, to James Rivok, burgess of Dundee, and his heirs for nine years; and in the next year he let the lands of the Church to Lord John Lyon of Glamis, for five years at £90 Scots, annually for the first three years, and £83 6s 8d for the next two years. The Church at this time was embellished and adorned with altars, and ornaments, and sacred 1. Roslin Chapel. 110 vessels, according to the Catholic usage. We can picture the scene of worship, the soft lights, the shadows encircling pillar and arch and vaulted roof, the gorgeous vestments, the swinging censers, the stillness broken only by the sound of solemn chant, as it rose and fell in melancholy cadence. "Still in the Kirk the mass was sung With small bells ringing and censers swung, Still bowed the priest before the pyx, The altar high and crucifix: And still the grand old psalm Pealed through the pillared calm." Following the prevailing custom, the Abbots of Arbroath appointed a chaplain to attend the duties of the Church, while they drew the revenues. This arrangement was received with great disfavour by the Barons of Glamis, who, from time to time made various mortifications for the better endowment of the chaplains. On 12th October 1487, John, the third Lord Glamis, granted a mortification of an annual rent of twelve merks and certain portions of the lands of Glamis to the altar of St. Thomas, the Martyr in the Parish Church there, for the celebration of Divine Service for the souls of his elder brother, Alexander, the second Lord Glamis, and Agnes Creichtoun, his wife. In 1492, the same Lord, with consent of John, his eldest son, mortified to the chapel of the Holy Trinity in the Parish Church of Glamis, two acres and a toft of land in the Barony of Glammiss, for the benefit of the soul of Elizabeth Scrymgeour, his wife. 111 James, Archbishop of St. Andrews, presented William Preston, in the year 1501, to the perpetual vicarage of the parish. In 1528, the Abbot of Arbroath let for nineteen years the teind sheaves and fruit of the parsonage of the Kirk of Glammys to M. Alexander Lyon, Chantor of Moray, brother of John, Lord Glammys, for £100. A reader was appointed for Clova, under the Vicar of Glammes in 1560, at fifty merks yearly. Finally, John, the seventh Lord Glamis, purchased from Cardinal Beaton, the perpetual commendator of the Abbey of Arbroath the whole teinds of the parish. The first minister of Glamis after the Reformation was Robert Boyd, who was appointed in 1567, having one hundred merks (£5-11s-1½d of stipend. He was translated to Newtyle in 1571. In 1574, John Nevay was translated from Newtyle to Glamis. "Esse, Lintrathen, and Methie," were also in the charge. His slipend was £8 6s-8d with the Kirk lands. He continued to hold office in 1590. There is no record of the date of his death. The ministers of the parish, for some time subsequent to this period, were as follows1:- 1595. - Samuel Ramsay, translated to Montrose between 1599 and 1601. 1601. - David Broune, translated from Essie, presented by James VI. to the charge, 17th January 1602, and 3rd February 1613. He also held the parsonage and vicarage of Clova which he demitted before 1st March 1616. He was a member of the 1. Fasti. Eccles. Scot., by Hew Scott, F.S.A. 112 Assemblies of 1602 and 1610. In 1620 he was "aged and diseased," and died in March 1625. He left a son, Mr. James Broune, and a daughter, Catherine. 1625. Silvester Lammie, A.M.1 He was laureated at the University of St. Andrews in 1617, presented by Charles I. to the charge on 4th July 1625, was a member of the Assemblies of 1638 and 1639, and of the Commissions of Assembly of 1645, 1646, continued 9th November 1664, but the benefice was vacant on 20th December 1665. He had two sons, Mr. John Lammie of Dunkenny, and Mr. Silvester Lammie, minister of Esse. 1667. George Middleton, A.M., eldest son of Dr. Alexander Middleton,2 Principal of the University and King's College, Aberdeen. He had his degree from the University on 17th July 1662. He passed trials before the Presbytery, and was recommended on 9th January 1667 to ordination, and admitted on 1. He was a brother of John Lammie of Dunkennie. Earl Patrick, in his diary, thus speaks of them: "There was on Lammie of Dunkennie good for telling of old stories, and a familiar friend in the house who I cannot tell how transported in the time, but made a shift to spend up his owne litle estate. My father still engaging for him till his debts exceeded the double of the worth of the estate. It was then sold, and what the estate did not pay of his debt, my father behooved to pay being ingaged for it; which did not serve, but my father also gratified him and his wyfe with a pension of fiftie bolls of victual. His brother was minister of Glammiss, which hes not such a provisone as could inrich any man, but such were the advantages, these had, who were constantlie about my father, that he without any visible cause made a shift to purchase bonds of my father so as he obtained a wedsett for his money from my Tutor, Bridgton, to the value of Banamoon, and sixth part of Drumgley, with which his son, I having redeemed these wedsetts, hes again made a purchase of his uncle's lands." - 'Glamis Book of Record.' 2. A Portrait of Dr. Alexander Middleton hangs in the Hall at King's College, but unfortunately, none exists of his son, the minister of Glamis. 113 THE EARLY CHURCH OF GLAMIS. 5th June 1667; having become a Regent in the above University in 1671, he demitted his charge in 1673. 1674. William Chalmers, A.M., son of Mr. William Chalmers, minister of Fettercairn, and graduated at University of Aberdeen in 1656, translated from Bervie, admitted on 15th April 1674. He died in March 1681, and of his age about forty-five. His books, utensils, and abulziments were estimat at £82, award to an apothecar in Dundee, for drogs £26-9s-6d, and to Dr. Andrew Lamb for attendance and fie £29. He married first a daughter of Mr. Patrick Lyon, minister of Barrie, and secondly, in May 1676, Martha, daughter of Arthur Granger, minister of Panbride. She survived her husband. 1681. - John Lyon, A.M., translated from Airlie, admitted 21st December 1681, continued 9th April 1682. He had graduated at St. Andrews in 1656, and had been ordained at Airlie in 1663. 168?. - George Middleton, A.M., above noticed, Sub-Principal in the University, and in King's College, Aberdeen, which he held in conjunction, returned before 27th July 1684 having been admitted Principal of the University of Aberdeen, he demitted his charge at Glamis once again, and preached his farewell sermon on 11th January 1685, from Philip.I. 27, "Only let your conversation be as it becometh the gospel of Christ; that whether I come and see you, or else be absent, I may hear of your affairs, that ye stand fast in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel." He died in May 1726 in the eighty second year of his age, and fifty ninth of his ministry. Janet Gordon, 114 his widow, died on 15th February 1753 in her hundred and first year, having had fourteen sons and four daughters. 1685. John Balvaird, A.M., translated from Kirkden. He had taken his degree at St. Andrews in 1642, and was ordained at Kirkden in 1650. He was admitted to Glamis on 24th September 1685, and was succeeded at Kirkden by his son William, who had previously been chaplain to the Earl of Strathmore, and had special charge of the education of his second son, Patrick Lyon, of Auchterhouse, who was killed at the battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715. Another son, David, witnessed a contract between the Earl of Strathmore and Jacob de Wet, and is there described as a servitor to Lord Strathmore. The document had been written by him so that he likely had taken a degree at one of the universities.1 From the first volume of the register of Kirk Session, which dates from 16772 we read: "September 6th 1685. Which day Mr. John Balvaird, minister of Kirkden, his edict was served by the preacher moderator. No sermon these several sabbaths bye gone, but singing and reading." September 13th. No sermon, but reading and singing upon the twenty day, for that the ministers admissione intimate by the reader to be upon Thursday next." "September 24, 1685. Sermon by Mr. Thomas Small, moderator, upon the 13 Heb., 17 verse, 1. "Glamis Book of Record." 2. The volume begins with the "Register of children's names baptised in the paroch of Glammiss since 13th November 1677, begune by Mr. Patrick Ogilvie, clerk to the sessione." 115 which day Mr. John Balvaird was admitted to the ministry at Glammis with the unanimous consent of the whole congregation." September 27, 1685. Which day ye minister enquyred after the number of ye elders whose names are as follows:- Frederick Lyon. James Cathro. Thomas Abbot. James Blair. John Low. James Horne. Thomas Kinmont. George Porter. John Nicoll. Andrew Chaplin. John Smith. John Philp. "October 11, 1685. Which day the minister caused reckon ye money of the church box, and there was found in it ane guinea of gold with thirtie three shillings Scots." "July 22, 1689. No sermon this day but reading, the minister being absent to assist the minister of Kirkden at his communion." The spirit of change and improvement awakened by Earl Patrick at this time in the parish seemed to influence ecclesiastical affairs no less than secular. The Church, like the Castle, had been greatly in need of repair, and we find that the Earl took as deep an interest in its proper preservation as he did in that of the Castle. "Att the Church," he says, "I have made a loft for my owne use, and built a little addition to my burial place both wch contribute extremelie to the adornment of the Church, besydes three other lofts that I made therein, Yet the Church stands uncompleit for the time by reasone of the 116 Laird of Claveres1 interest in the parish, who does not contribut his help for makeing other two lofts betwixt the pillars on the southsyd as well as it is done upon the north."2 Relics belonging to the Church date from this period of restoration. The old Poores Box, 1688; the Pulpit Bible, 1689; and the Communion Chalices, 1676. The Session Register contains entries of payments made for work done at the Church. The following list is interesting:- "November 15, 1685. Given by Frederick Lyon, in Arnafoull, for his wyffe's burial place in ye Church, 06 13 04." "January 3, 1686. Given to John -----, measone, for fixing a knock in the back door of ye Church, 2s/8d." "February 2, 1686. Given for a new Sessione Book, 4s/ 8d." "March 14, 1686. To Catherine Hill for soap to wash ye communion table cloaths, 4s/8d." "Apryll 4, 1686. Given to James Tylor, measone, for pavementing of the Church floore, being a week's work, three pounds, sax shillings, eight pennies." "Given to the Church Officer for serveing the measone, 12s/8d." "Given to ye Glaisior for mending ye church windows, 3s/8d." "Apryll 13, 1686. Given for timber for the communion tables, 7s/8d." 1. Grahame of Claverhouse. 2. "Glamis Book of Record." 117 "May 2, 1686. Given for aill to the wrights who erected ye communion tables, two pounds." "December 23, 1688. Given for mending the bell, 4s/8d." "December 21, 1689. Given to my Lord's Chamberlain for a chest to keep the mortcloath in, £1, Scots." "April 10, 1692. Given to Andrew Wright for leather to the pulpit, £2 3s 8d, which he is obliged to pay to the merchant. Given to Apolonea Kirkheis for colouring the pulpit, £4-4s 8d." "Item for nails to the pulpit, £2 18s 8d." "June 19, 1692. Given to Thomas Spalding for furnishing silk and buttons to the velvet mortcloath, and for his workmanship, 10s/8d." "December 11, 1692. Given to William Johnston for mending the west window of the Church, 6s/8d." "May 27, 1694. Given for a new tow to the bell, 14s/8d." "Given to William Johnston for making up the great window on the west end of the Church, £8 13s 8d." In July 1689 Episcopacy was abolished by Act of Parliament as the established form of religion in Scotland, and in the Revolution Settlement of 1690 the Presbyterian form of church government was instituted. Whatever the feelings of the laird and people had been regarding the change in the government of the church, they did not allow them to interfere with the steady progress that was being made in the work of 118 renovation which went on apace, as several of the above entries of payments show. "May 15, 1692. Given by my Lady of Glammis ane guinea of gold, it being her first entrie to ye Church."1 Andrew Wright, the local joiner, had been employed by Lord Strathmore at the alterations then being made at the church. Wright had charged for the rectifying of one of his own blunders. On noticing this in his account, Lord Strathmore marked opposite the entry: "Because he made the reeders seat wrong, it is just to give him nothing for making it right."2 Earl Patrick, although a nobleman, occupied greatly with public affairs, was deeply religious in temperament and mindful of the poor. He made a draft of a deed about 1693, which, alas, never was actually drawn up for some reason or other. In this draft he wished to build four "lodges" or alms-houses near the Kirktoun of Glamis "for the use of four aged men of his own surname if they could be found, and failing them, to such decayed tenants as had been reduced to want not through their own faults, to each of whom he intended to mortify yearly four bolls of oatmeal and twenty five merks, Scots, money, with 'a new whyt coloured wid cloath coat lyned with blue serge once every three years.' " He desired that these four men should attend the parish church and "wait always at the 1. Session Records. Lady Glammis was married in September 1691, to John, Lord Glammis, afterwards fourth Earl. She was Lady Elizabeth Stanhope, daughter of Philip, second Earl of Chesterfield. 2. "Glamis Book of Record." 119 Church door when we goe there, and at their own dores whenever we shall have occasion to pass by, if they be not employed abroad . . . . and that they shall be holden (if sickness and infirmity do not hinder) to repair everie day once at the twalt hour of the day to our buriall place (whereof a key shall be given to each incomer), and a form of prayer to be read by them by turns by such of them as can read, and if they cannot read, that they learn the same by heart." Lord Strathmore wished to form this little institution as a mark of gratitude to providence for blessings and mercies received. His intention, however, was never carried into effect.1 "January 3, 1695. Which day the noble Lord Glammiss presented his daughter to baptism, the noble chyld was named Helen, after her grandmother the Countess of Strathmore, witnesses, ye noble Earls of Strathmore and Aboyne, the Hon. Lairds of Brigton and Powrie, and with many other honourable witnesses."2 In 1695 the Church was seated with fixed pews. Hitherto stools or "creepies," as they were called, had been used by the worshippers, although many came without any such provision, and were compelled in consequence to remain standing during the service. Pews were seldom seen in Scottish churches until the eighteenth century, and Glamis must therefore have been one of the earliest to adopt the innovation. Andrew Wright, the joiner, who had already proved his skill, was commissioned 1. "Glamis Book of Record." 2. Kirk Session Register. She married the seventh Lord Blantyre but had no issue, and died at Bath on 19th December 1723. 120 to carry out the work, which was duly and successfully accomplished. "Apryll 19, 1695. Given to Andrew Wright twentie pound Scots, which with four score pounds he received before, made up in hoill ane hundred pounds Scots, which compleets his hoill payment for the new, pews in the Church with there back pannels, and repairing the Stooll of Repentance with the end of the west loft, the pews being formed as follows: Forasmuch as the Church Session att Glammiss have at there charge erected several new seats in the said Church, and that it is just and equitable that this advancement should not only be refounded but improven to some advantage by making out some constant rent to return yearly to the publick box." Seat rents thus instituted were imposed for a long period in Glamis. The custom, however, is no longer followed. Mention is made in the above notice of the "Stooll of Repentance." At that time immorality was very common in the parish, and a constant and watchful vigilance was exercised by the church over all offenders, who had to pay fines graded according to the seriousness of the offence, the lowest being £4 Scots. The guilty had to stand at the pillory, which was a raised wooden platform in front of the pulpit, and clothed in sackcloth they were thereupon publicly rebuked and exhorted to penitence by the minister. Sometimes the "Stooll of Repentance" was requisitioned for the same purpose. To stand on the Stool was a sign of penitence, and immediately afterwards the offenders received 121 the rebuke, and, if regarded necessary "the wee sermon" or exhortation. There are many notices in the session records of delinquents appearing "on the pillory" and "in sackcloth" at the Church, and being obliged to pay heavy fines for their offences. The Church services at this date were quaint, and judged by modern standards, dreary, being unnecessarily prolonged. The people of Glamis were roused at ten o'clock on Sunday morning to church preparation by the ringing of the "first bell." Strange that this old custom still survives, but at present the first bell rings at nine thirty. The "second bell" rang when the people were assembling in the Church. At present it rings at ten thirty. The reader or precentor then announced a psalm which the congregation united in singing, and which usually continued until the "third bell" began, when the minister, hat on head, entered the pulpit. The clergyman made a low bow to the Earl in his loft, and if any of the other heritors were present, he saluted them1 in turn in a similar fashion. These returning the courtesy solemnly rose and made an elaborate obeisance to the minister who then began the service. The male portion of the congregation remained bare headed until the sermon or lecture began, when it was customary for them to assume their caps or bonnets. The service consisted of a 1. The lost remnant of this old custom may be noted on the Sunday when the Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly attends service in St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. The officiating Clergy bow to the Lord High Commissioner in the Royal pew, and he courteously returns the obeisance. 122 prayer, a lecture from a passage in Scripture, then second prayer followed by a sermon, a third prayer preceded the singing of a psalm which was followed by the benediction. The afternoon service was similar, only a little shorter. Between the "preachings," those who lived in the village went home and partook of some light refreshment nothing being cooked that day - in the shape of bread and ale, while those who came from the glens and outlying portions of the parish either visited the change house or remained in church. The Earl's loft, or pew, was a very commodious one, and had been made by Earl Patrick for the use of himself and family. To them a meal was served in the interval between the services. The schoolmaster was the leader of the psalmody in Glamis, and each line of the psalm was chanted over by him in the prevailing manner of the period.1 Looking round the congregation we should find it to consist of farmers, ploughmen, and artisans principally, with the members of their families. The men wore bonnets and plaids of rough homespun, with knee breeches, hose and brogues, the women were attired in mutches, plain gowns of home spun, and woollen shawls or plaids of bright colours which sometimes were drawn over their heads. The noble proprietor and the other lairds would be conspicuous; by the elegance of dress then fashionable among gentlemen of quality. Their full-bottomed wigs and three cornered hats, coats of rich material and braided with 1. This custom is still observed in some parts of the Highlands. It was an English custom, originally adopted because of the inability of the people to read. 123 gold, swords by their sides, long jack boots and gold headed canes, all would form a marked contrast to the simple attire of the homely villagers. The ladies, too, were not behind their lords, but rather surpassed them in the gaiety of their costume. The Countess of Strathmore in a superb dress of green and gold with two pages bearing her train was a sufficiently impressive and awe inspiring herself, not to speak of the others in their bright scarlet silken plaids, wonderful lofty head dress, hoops and powder. No wonder that a traveller of the period who made a journey through Scotland then said that a "Scots Church was like a parterre of flowers."1 Mr. John Balvaird died on 1st March 1698, aged about seventy six, and in the forty eighth year of his ministry. His "inventar" amounted to £206. He had five sons, several of whom have been already mentioned, and a daughter, Marjory, who married Mr. Robert Strachan, minister of Colvend. "July 12th, 1699. Which day the Right Honourable the Earl of Strathmore presented his son to baptism, and named him Charles, witnesses, the Rt. Hon. the Laird of Auchterhouse, Mr. Alex. Maitland, brother Germain to the Earle of Lauderdale, the Laird of Powrie, with many other honourable witnesses. Ye noble chyld was born the night immediately preceding, about eight of the clock."2 "June 11, 1699. John Balvaird, A.M., son of the former minister, translated from Edzell, was intruded. 1. See "Social Life of Scotland in the Eighteenth Century" by Graham. 2. Register of Kirk Session. He became sixth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. 124 He had studied at St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, and received his degree there in 1670." "June 11, 1699. Being ye Lord's day, which day Mr. John Balvaird, late minister at Edzell, was entered minister of the Church, and had his first exhortation to the people from 2 Titus, 10 verse." 1 "Apryle 29, 1701. Which day Alexander and Margaret Lyon, twins, lawful children to John Lyon, Factor to ye Earle of Strathmre, baptised, witnesses, John Hood in Little Cossins, and Patrick Lyon, unquil to the children." "November 7, 1703. After sermon in the Castle by the minister there was collected 14 pounds Scots for the poor." "November 19, 1704. After sermon in the Castle there was collected 14 pounds Scots for the poor again." "Apryle 24, 1707. - Pews payed, John Lyon, late Factor to the late Earl of Strathmore, two pews lying upon north side of church of Glammiss. Catherine Lyon,2 lawful daughter to John, Earle of Strathmore baptised upon the 17th day of this month. Witnesses, Rt. Hon. the Laird of Auchterhouse, the Laird of Powrie, with many other honourable witnesses." "May 1, 1712. The which day the Laird of Kaim, having spoke unto the minister concerning a seat in the church of Glammiss for himself, his familie, and tennants, and having claimed the whole loft on the north side of the Church, next adjacent to the Earle 1. Register of Kirk Session. 2. She died young, 125 of Strathmore his loft, as his proper seat belonging to him as portioner of Denoon Easter, the minister having imparted the same to the foresaid Earle to whom the other half of the foresaid lands of Denoon Easter belonged, and likewise to the Church Sessione of Glammiss anent the foresaid claim. The Earle and Church Sessione after consideration do allow the foresaid Laird of Kaim, for his interest in Denoon Easter, being the half of the fors'd lands, the first seat in the first seat in the foresaid loft and the third falling in number behind it, and therefore it is hereby declared that onlie the first proportion of the above-mentioned loft belongs to the said Laird of Kaim, and the rest of the loft to the Earle of Strathmore as heretor and possessor the other half of the fors'd lands. This enacted in the Church Sessione of Glammiss by the Earle's allowance insert in the sessione book."1 "December 14, 1712. Payd by Robert Mitchell for trees growing in the Church Yard of Glammiss, which he bought by roup £227 20s. Paid by George Maxwell for his pew 12 shillings, also by Patrick Lyon for his pew in the Church of Glammiss, also by Agnes Brown for her pew there 10 shillings, also by Patrick Mitchell for his pew there 6 shillings, also by Alexander Skene for his pew there 12 shill. Scots, which pays all byegones to them preceding Whitsunday in the present year 1712, and accordingly they all received their discharge." "May 24, 1713. For the new velvet mortcloath out off the Paroch, £2." 1. Register of Kirk Session. 126 "June 16, 1714. - After prayer at the Castle, collected for the poor, £00 13s 6d." "December 5, 1714. After sermon at the Castle, collected, for ye poor there, 17 shill. Scots." Mr. John Balvaird, the minister, must have demitted his charge about 1716, as his successor was appointed then. He took a medical degree (M.D.) and apparently left the ministry. He died on 28th October 1740 in his eighty eighth year, and fifty-seventh of his ministry. For three years, 1716 1719, there was no kirk-session in Glamis, as it was impossible to find elders. The records do not state reasons, but it is highly probable that the elders had gone out in the rising of "Fifteen" in the "Strathmore Company," and it had been found impossible either to induce them to return to office, or to find successors willing to assume the duties and responsibilities of the eldership. The Church of Scotland was Hanoverian, and if the elders had been guilty of official disobedience, no doubt the penalty exacted would have been a heavy one, and probably they had preferred to resign office. In 1719, however, several members were prevailed upon to accept the eldership, and the following minute of kirk session the first in the second volume of the Register states the facts: "October 18, 1719, the Reverend William Dun, second minister of the Gospel at Enneresk, was transported hither and admitted to the Sacred function of the ministry in this parish, upon the eleventh day of November one thousand seven hundred and sixteen. But, for 127 want of elders, there was no sessione held here till the date hereof. The following persons, being at last after much pain and application prevailed upon to undertake the office of eldership, viz., Patrick Malcolm in the Newtoun, John Kininmonth in Glen of Ogilvy, Andrew Fergusone in Glammis, and John Lyon junior there. This was represented to the Reverend Presbytery of Forfar. They ordered the said persons edict to be served, which accordingly was done, October 11th, 1719, and nothing being objected against their life or conversation, they were Sabbath thereafter, ordained and admitted elders in this parish, the duties incumbent on that office being held forth in a sermon preached from I. Timothy, v.1 7, by the Reverend Mr. Dun, who, immediately after the congregation was dismissed, as moderator conveened the first four persons and with them constituted his first session by prayer at the date hereof. Mr. John Dicksone, session clerk, and William Allardice, officer." "Represented by the moderator that according to the form of Church government there must an elder be nominated and appointed to attend the synod, viz., of Angus and Mearns, to meet at Forfar, the twentieth current, John Kininmont was unanimously chosen for that effect. Sederunt closed with Prayer." "November 1, 1719. Sessione constitute by prayer. 'Twas unanimously agreed upon that their ordinary meetings shall henceforth be punctually kept on the first Lord's day of each monthe throughout the year. Sederunt closed with prayer." 128 Successive minutes from this date give interesting detail. They speak for themselves: "March 20, 1720. Andrew Fergusone, one of the elders, was unanimously chosen to attend the ensuing Synod at Brechin, Aprile 19th instant." "July 3, 1720. Sederunt with prayer. This day the sessione taking, to their serious consideration what time will be most proper for celebrating the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper in this congregation; do prefix the third Sabbath of August next for that holy purpose. Upon the twenty-fourth of this current the minister intimate to the congregation the day condescended on for celebrating the Lord's Supper. Sederunt closed with prayer." "August 7, 1720. - After prayer, intimate by the moderator to the congregation, that with advice of session he designed to defer the ministration of the Lord's Supper till Harvest be over, which was approaching faster than was expected." "November 1725. On the twenty third of this moneth the Revd. Mr. Dun, minister, departed this life, to the great grief of the whole parish." Mr. Dun was succeeded in office by the Rev. James Ogilvy, who had been licensed by the Presbytery of Edinburgh, presented by Mr. Dickson, Town Clerk of Forfar, ordained 1726. On November 20, 1740, Rev. James Ogilvy died to the "great grieff of all yt ever knew him, especially those of his own parish." He was succeeded by Rev. James Donaldson, a probationer in ye Presbytery of Selkirk: "After this ye kirk being declared vacant by ye Rev. Presbytery of Forfar, the 129 Right Honble. ye Earle of Strathmore, and ye other heritors in ye parish and elders made application to ye Presb. for moderating in a call to Mr. James Donaldson, probationer in ye Presb. of Selkirk, which was granted and came out in his favour. He was ordained minister of the parish, September 3rd, 174l." Strong measures were adopted by the Church of Scotland to prevent office-bearers within her pale being associated with the rising of the "Forty five." The church was Anti Jacobite, and rigorous efforts on every side were made to suppress any possible outbreak in behalf of the Chevalier and his party. After the rebellion, the Presbytery of Forfar issued at one of their meetings a set of questions which the ministers were to put to the members of their respective kirk-sessions regarding, the share they had taken individually in the rebellion. "October 5, 1746. The Session being met and constituted by prayer, the minister represented yt an act of ye General Assembly having been laid before the Presbytery of Forfar at their last meeting enjoining the several members to enquire into the part of different members of ye several kirk-sessions, that have aided during ye late unnatural rebellion, the Presbytery in obedience unto this order agreed upon a set of questions to be put to ye members of ye severall kirk-sessions, and appointed their answers to be recorded, and for that purpose appointed their several members to hold a meeting of their several sessions betwixt it and next Presbytery day, and to be ready to give in their deposition at that 130 time. The minister, therefore, signified that he had called a meeting of the session this day for the end aforesaid, and having read over the questions agreed upon by the Presbytery, the same were put to each of the members, and are with their answers as follows accordingly, George Doig being first interrogated. "1. Was you concerned in ye Rebellion by bearing arms in service of the Pretender? Answer, No. "2. Did you contribute men or moe to ye rebels and on what inducement? Answer, I was forced by William Ogilvy, one of ye rebel captains who was in ye town with a party at ye time to do so. "3. Did you in your conversation or talking with your neighbours say anything to encourage ye Rebellion, or against His Majesty and ye great establishment? Answer, No. "4. Did you attend a non-juring meeting-house during ye time of ye Rebellion? Answer, No, but always attended on ordinances dispensed by the minister of this church. The same questions were put to Tho. Ogilvie and Patrick Gillies, and they returned the same Answers, signed George Doig, Tho. Ogilvie, Pat. Gillies. John Wright, being asked ye same questions, gave ye same answer as did ye other elders, only he acknowledged 'yt ye rebels forced him by fire and sword to go through ye parish and summon'd ye tenants to bring carts for carrying their arms to Coupar of Angus,' and this is consistent with ye knowledge of ye people in ye town, yet, 1 am ready to prove if required, signed, John Wright. The same question being 131 put to Mr. Robert Smith, schoolmaster and session clk., he returned ye same answers excepting yt he had neither contributed men nor moe for ye rebellion, yt that he was not qualify'd to the government it never being appointed of him, only he had signed ye confessione of faith and formula, signed, Robert Smith (he is qualifyed since). The above questions being put at John Allardice, officer, he answered all of them in ye negative, sign'd, John Allardice." From the above examination it would seem that the elders had taken some little part in the Rising. Had they done so of their own free wills they would have been brave men indeed, for Presbytery was stern and relentless in these days, but having been forced by "ye rebel captain and by fire and sword" they could not help themselves, and accordingly their exemption from any fine or penalty was assured. The Rev. Dr. Donaldson died in 1779. He had been presented to the parish of Glamis by Thomas, Earl of Strathmore. He married a lady of the name of Margaret Adam, and had a daughter Jean, who married James Hay of Seggieden, Perthshire.1 Dr. Donaldson's successor was Rev. Dr. James Lyon. "September 14, 1780. Mr. James Lyon was solemnly ordained minister of the Gospel in this parish."2 1. Some of the sermons preached by Dr. Donaldson in Glamis about the period of the "Forty Five" are in the possession of Colonel Drummond Hay of Seggieden. 2. "Session Register." 132 Dr. Lyon was the son of the Rev. George Lyon of Wester Ogil.1 He was born on 29th March 1759; presented in 1780 by the tutors of John, Earl of Strathmore, to the parish of Glamis; wrote both the statistical accounts of the parish, received the degree of D.D. from the University of Aberdeen in 1823, and died, father of the synod of Angus, 3rd April 1838, in his eightieth year. He married, 25th January 1786, Agnes, elder daughter of John Ramsay L'amy of Dunkenny. She was born at Dundee in 1762, and died, 14th September 1840. Her brother was Sheriff of Forfarshire from 1819 to 1854. Mrs. Lyon2 was a poetess, and some of her verses will be found in Roger's "Modern Scottish Minstrel," pp.11-84. Among others, her words to Neil Gow's "Farewell to Whisky," she composed in the manse of Glamis. Dr. Lyon, in his statistical account of the Parish, speaks of the Church as being old and in very bad condition, but refrains from further comment. In 1792, the building was taken down, and the present edifice erected on the same site. The writer has heard some very old people say that their parents and grand-parents remembered the old church, and as the stone roof was greatly in need of repair, it was supposed to be dangerous; hence the necessity arose for taking down the old fabric, but when operations had been fairly started the greatest difficulty was experienced in getting the roof down. 1. "Lyons of Cossins and Glen Ogil," by Mr. Andrew Ross. 2. Mrs.Lyon, at her death, left four volumes of manuscript poems which, she directed, were not to be sold "unless the family required pecuniary assistance." 133 It had been more securely welded together than any one had imagined. This was a common experience in Scotland. The Churches were so well built that it was no easy task to take them to pieces. When ground is opened for interments near the walls of the present church, remains of the foundations of the old church are generally discovered, but these are always of a fragmentary character and not sufficiently entire to give any idea of its size or appearance. We must be content to form our surmise of it from the portion still standing, and there is reason for thankfulness that though small and but a fragment, it conveys to us, nevertheless, a good idea of the exceptional beauty and elegance of the church that had been so ruthlessly destroyed. How pleasing to turn from this vandalism to the words of Milton: "But let my due feet never fail To walk the studious cloisters pale And love the high, embowed roof With antique pillars massy proof, And storied windows, richly dight, Casting a dim, religious light. There let the pealing organ blow To the full voiced choir below, In service high and anthems clear As may with sweetness through mine ear Dissolve me into ecstasies And bring all Heaven before mine eyes." 134 THE EARLY CHURCH OF GLAMIS. Relics belonging to the Church of Glamis. 1. Old Communion Cups. There are four of these in the possession of the kirk-session of Glamis. The two oldest are of beaten silver, and have the arms of Earl Patrick engraved upon them - a lion rampant on a shield with the royal double tressure, and surmounted by a coronet; beneath is the date 1676, while at the foot of the cup the monogram appears, P.E.K. (Patrick, Earl of Kinghorne). He was not created Earl of Strathmore until the following, year, 1677. These cups are very elegant in design. Whether Earl Patrick gifted them to the church or not is uncertain. He was a staunch Episcopalian, and Episcopacy was the established form of religion in Scotland at that time. There is every reason to believe, therefore, that they had been given by him to the church; but they must have been lost or stolen, for a time at least, and then restored, as there are two entries in the kirk-session register later than the date of the cups, in which it is expressly stated that there were no communion cups in the possession of the kirk-session. The first entry is in November 1726, and is as follows:- "Kirk of Glammis, November 25th 1726. After prayer the minister moderator desired to know what utensils and other things belonged to this church, accordingly there were presented to him, a bible in folio, a velvet and cloath mortcloath, communion table cloaths, but no cups, a basin and towel for 135 baptisms, and a chest for holding necessary things in, all which he ordered to be kept as carefully as formerly." The second entry is in October 1741. "Kirk of Glammis, October 10th 1741. After sermon kirksession met, and being constituted by prayer, the moderator desired to know what utensils and other things belonged to the church. Accordingly there were presented to him, a bible in folio, a velvet mortcloath, and an old cloath sac, communion table cloaths, in a very bad state, a basin and towel for baptisms (but no communion cups), and an old chest for holding of mortcloath, all which he ordered to be kept decently." In the troublous times of the Revolution of 1688 the chalices had probably disappeared, but had been found many years afterwards, and handed over to their proper owners. The other two cups are also of silver, and are inscribed as follows:- "Bought by the Kirk-Session of Glammiss 1767, Mr. James Donaldson, minister." 2. Pulpit Bible. - This bible is a folio, bound in calf, and printed in the year 1679. On the flyleaf the following inscription is written:- "This bible was bought for the use of the church of Glamis upon the expense of the common Thesaurie thereof att sixteen pounds Scots, payed upon the 27 Day of October 1689, Mr. John Balvaird being present minister." 3. Poores Box. - An interesting relic of former days. It was lost for a long period, but was found in the cellar beneath the session-house some years ago. It is made of stout oak, panelled, and is black with 136 age. It measures thirteen-and-a-quarter inches in length by eight-and-a-half inches in width and the same in depth. It contains four drawers, and on the upper side is seen the date 1688, and the letters M.I.B., being the initials of the minister of the time John Balvaird. It has a double lock, and of course there were two keys which were given to two different elders, both of whom must be present before the box could be opened. The double lock was therefore a safeguard against any possible tendency on the part of particular elders to prove untrustworthy. At that time banks were not within reach in the rural districts, and the kirk box was made the receptacle for the money and valuable papers of the kirk-session. One of the elders was box-master or kirk treasurer, and it seemed only right that he should not be held solely responsible for the safety of the contents; hence the double lock and the two keys. 4. The Old Mortcloth of black velvet and bordered with heavy black fringe. 5. The Baptismal Basin of pewter. 6. Two Pewter Collection Plates. <<SKETCH OF COMMUNION TOKENS>> 7. Communion Tokens. - These are fine old specimens dating from 1783, and bearing initials of Dr. Lyon - MR. I. L. 1783, Glammiss. In the session 137 cash book is found an entry of payment for them on July 7th 1783, the cost being £2-18s. They are no longer used.1 In the old days the church services were well attended, but the fact must be taken into consideration that the sitting accommodation was inadequate for the large population of the parish. Many people then must have been non-church going or "passed the plate," as the collection on no occasion exceeded 10s/6d. When the population was at its largest the membership was only seven hundred and fifty. Changes, however, succeed one another in rapid succession, and what is in store for the church in the future it is impossible to say. It is to be hoped that the torch of Gospel truth may ever be kept burning in the parish. 1. The key of the pre-Reformation church is in possession of Mr. George Anderson, Glamis. It is of great size, and its design testifies to its antiquity. 138 139 140 APPENDICES. 1. EASTER-DENOON. A fine "March" stone is situated on the hill between Easter-Denoon and Ingliston of Eassie. On the side facing Denoon, the following is inscribed: - G. I. 1685 These letters are the initials of the name of the Rev. Sir George Innes, who was proprietor of Easter-Denoon at that time. He was the fourth Baronet of Balveny, his father being Colonel James Innes, son of the first Baronet. Sir George was a Jesuit priest. He studied in Spain and at Paris, and came to the Scottish Ministry in 1673. He continued there until 1698, when he died in February of that year. At one time, he was made prisoner by an officer of the army and some soldiers, who had come from Banff to Denoon at the entreaty of Innes at Orton, who had betrayed Sir George. The first stop which they made, after having taken him, was at Birnie, when the officer, understanding from Sir 141 George's statements how basely Orton had deceived him, under the pretence of friendship, expressed great indignation against Orton, and dismissed Sir George. Orton afterwards fell into poverty, in punishment, as some imagined, because of his treacherous action. It appeared by the accounts that Denoon's two nieces were then mistresses of the lands of Kinnermonie, and that Denoon had entrusted Orton with the management of their affairs, which last was desirous to have the other out of the way, that he himself might not be called to account, but might do as he pleased with what belonged to the two ladies, and perhaps appropriate some of it to himself. In the old vellum-bound diary of Patrick, first Earl of Strathmore, which is in the Charter Room at Glamis Castle, Lord Strathmore records some dealings he had with Innes regarding the payment of feu duties which were due to him by Innes: "I compted this day with George Innes of Easter Denoon for his bygone feu dewties commencing from Wittsunday '75 till Wittsunday '84 att 30lib. yearlie, and his former payments being compted, he wes found resting to me 158lib. 1s. 8d. for wch I have gotten bond but for payment thereof I bought fourtie bolls of bear from him att 41ib. 3ss. 4d. the boll, and so when he delyvers the merchants receits to me to whom I directed him he is to gett up his bond againe and the ballance what the said fourtie bolls extends to more then the soume contained in the bond, but here I gaine by the pryce that I have sold att in Dundee 26lib. 13s. 4d." It would appear that Lord Strathmore was not the loser in the transaction! 142 In the garden of Easter-Denoon in 1912, the writer saw a collection of stone fragments, some of which had engraven upon them heraldic carvings, notably the three stars of the Inneses. No doubt these stones came from the old Castle of Denoon. II. DRUMGLEY. The affray between the McCombies and the Farquharsons of Deeside, at Drumgley, took place in 1673. Two McCombies were killed, and the same number of Farquharsons. Shortly afterwards, the McCombies removed to Deeside. III. TOUCH PIECE OF THE CHEVALIER DE ST. GEORGE. The type of this touch piece is the same as that of the coin called an Angel, which was hung by the Sovereign round the necks of people with the King's evil. When the angel ceased to circulate as a coin, pieces of similar design were struck for distribution by the King when he operated upon patients. All the monarchs of the Stuart Race, including Queen Anne, performed this healing ceremony. In the time of King James II., those touch-pieces were made by one Norberts Roettier. King James's son, the Chevalier de St. George, and his grandson, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, continued the custom, the latter "touching" at 143 Holyrood Palace, when he sojourned there in 1745. (See Chambers's "History of the Rebellion"). When in Rome, the Chevalier "touched" very frequently. His touch-piece was of silver, and he is described upon it as "Jacobus III.," or sometimes "Jacobus VIII.," to suit his Scottish "subjects." This touch-piece of silver was probably the work of Ottoni Hamerani, medallist to the Papal Court. He worked much for Prince James. The medal is in high relief, and is of finer workmanship than the English ones of King James II. The ship engraved upon the Reverse differed in character according as the family fortunes differed. If the prospects were good the ship was represented as sailing on a quiet sea: if not good, the ship is seen on a turbulent sea. The following is an account of the ceremony which took place in Glamis Castle on the night the Chevalier stayed there. It was written by his confessor, Father Lewis Innes, who was Principal of the Scots College in Paris as well as Grand Almoner to Queen Mary of Modena and her son, the Chevalier. The document, written in Innes's shaky hand, was in the possession of the late Mrs. Maria Francis Chisholm, wife of the late Captain Archibald Macra Chisholm, of the Black Watch Royal Highlanders, Glassburn House, Strathglass, and the writer copied it out when on one of his visits to Glassburn. Mrs. Chisholm was the last descendant of the Innes' family of Balnacraig and Ballogie. The original document, unfortunately was lost after the death of Mrs. Chisholm in 1912. The following is the text of it from the copy written out by the writer: 144 "The King(!) knelt upon a cushion, and the assistants, as well as those who were to be 'touched,' knelt upon the floor of the chapel. The King's Confessor (Father Innes), wearing cotta and stole, recited certain prayers to which His Majesty responded. The priest then read the Gospel of Christ's ordering his disciples to go and teach all nations and afterwards using the words 'Super egros manus imponent et bene habebunt.' When these words were being said one of the King's Aides-de-camp led the patients, some of them being children, one by one to His Majesty, who was now seated, and who laid his hands upon each, the priest meanwhile repeating 'Super egros, etc.' The King then knelt and recited certain prayers, after which, resuming his seat he hung a silver medal, bearing S. Michael on one side and a three masted ship on the other, round the neck of each patient. The King performed the ceremony in a saintly manner, with great devoutness and recollection of mind. The office used was that of King Henry VII, revived by King James II." Prince James also "touched for the evil" in Perth before his intended Coronation. When Prince Charles "touched" at Holyrood, the act appears to have been unpremeditated and rather unwillingly performed. It is therefore not likely that the Prince was armed with his father's touch-pieces, and no mention of a special medal is made in the report of the ceremony as given by Robert Chambers concerning the details of this extraordinary occasion. Chambers tells the story at 145 some length, and mentions that the Prince was first approached at Perth but "excused himself, pleading want of time." However, a little seven-year-old girl, "dreadfully afflicted with the disease ever since her infancy," was brought to him at Holyrood, where he was found in the Picture Gallery, which served as his ordinary audience chamber, surrounded by all his principal officers and by many ladies. He caused a circle to be made within which the child was admitted, together with her attendants, and a clergyman in canonicals. The patient was then stripped naked and placed upon her knees in the centre of the circle. The clergyman having pronounced an appropriate prayer, probably the office for the ceremony, Charles approached the kneeling girl, and, with great apparent solemnity, touched the sores occasioned by the disease, pronouncing at every application the words, "I touch, but God heal." The ceremony was concluded by another prayer from the clergyman, and the patient being again dressed was carried round the circle and presented with little sums of money by all present. The historian says the child recovered. Charles used the French and not the English words in healing. Prince Charles's change of religion was of later date and, therefore, had he used any office it would have been that revived by James II. from the text of Henry VII. King James II. "touched" for the evil a great deal. He did not spend less than £3,000 a year on the pieces. His touch-pieces were of gold when he was in England, and of silver when he was an exile. 146 With his deep sense of mystery and strong religious feeling the King firmly believed that a special power was granted to him from above in virtue of his Divine Right as sovereign to effect a cure upon all unfortunate people afflicted by this disease. IV. FURTHER NOTE ON QUEEN MARY'S WATCH. The watch given by Mary, Queen of Scots, to Margaret Lyon, referred to in the text, was made by Etienne the Elder, of Rouen, a contemporary of Queen Mary and of Charles IX. of France and of Henry III. Sir John Leslie, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, was well acquainted with Etienne's reputation as a mechanician of that early time. Etienne had a son of the same name, who was also a watchmaker in Rouen. It would appear that Queen Mary, on leaving France on her return to Scotland, provided herself with a stock of watches to present to the principal persons among her subjects to whom she wished to pay some attention, as there are several watches still preserved in Scottish families as gifts from the Queen. This watch is small in size, and round in shape. It is cased in beautiful gold filigree. It has a cat-gut spring, similar to other watches of the period. The dial plate is enamelled with flowers. The outer case is gilt and modern. There is the greatest evidence of the antiquity and royal origin of this watch, as the 147 owners can name every individual who possessed it from Queen Mary downwards. The Queen presented the watch to the ancestor of the present owners, Margaret Lyon, sister of the eighth Lord Glamis, and wife of the first Marquess of Hamilton, son of the Regent Earl of Arran, Duke of Chatelherault, father of James, the second Marquess and grandfather of the first Duke of Hamilton and of Captain Anstruther-Thomson's ancestor, the Countess of Crawford. The wife of William, the second Duke of Hamilton, gave the watch to their daughter and heiress, the Lady Margaret Hamilton, on her marriage with William Blair of Blair. The watch continued in the family of Blair (who were not descended from the Hamiltons, as the issue of Lady Margaret became extinct), until the marriage between Janet Blair of Blair and Mr. Tait, Clerk of Session. She afterwards gave it to her niece, Catharine Sinclair, daughter of Sir John Sinclair, Bart., who, in 1823, sold it for twenty guineas to Mrs. Woddrop of Dalmarnock, who presented it to the Reverend John Hamilton Gray, who says in a manuscript history of the watch, that "This is a true and authentic account of Queen Mary's watch from the time that it left the hands of the Queen until it came into mine. I am descended lineally from Margaret Lyon, Marchioness of Hamilton, to whom it was originally given, as her son, the second Marquess, had a daughter, Lady Margaret Hamilton, the wife of John Lindsay, seventh Earl of Crawford and Lindsay, who was my great-great- grand mother." The watch is now in the possession of the latter's grand children, 148 the Anstruther-Thomsons of Charleton, Colinsburgh, Fife. The late Colonel Anstruther-Gray was of the same family, and adopted the name of Gray on succeeding, to the estate of Carntyne, Glasgow, which belonged to his grandfather, the Reverend John Hamilton Gray. V. KING JAMES V. AND GLAMIS CASTLE. King James V. entertained feelings of intense hatred towards the great family of Douglas, not without reason, as he had suffered considerably at their hands. The sixth Lord Glamis, having married Janet Douglas, third daughter of George, Master of Angus, who was slain at Flodden, and sister of Archibald, sixth Earl of Angus, the family became the object of marked dislike and suspicion on the part of the King. In public life, Lord Glamis had supported the party of the Queen (Margaret Tudor) against that of her former husband, the Earl of Angus. In the "Scots Nobilitie" he is described as a "werie bold, stoute, and resolute man, and by the Commones called to ane bye-name, Clane'e-Causey, for his manic quarrells." After the death of Lord Glamis in 1528, his widow married Alexander Campbell of Skipnish, second son of Archibald, second Earl of Argyll. The King fixed upon poor Lady Glamis as the special object of his resentment. After a series of charges, 149 which were undoubtedly false, she was condemned to be burned to death on the Castle Hill of Edinburgh, as being "art and part of the tressonabill conspiraturine and ymaginationne of the slauchter and destructionne of our soueraine lordis maist nobill person be poysone, and for art and part in the tressonable assistance supple ressett intercommorying and fortifying of Archibald, sumtyme Erll of Anguse, and George Douglas, hir brother, traytouris and rebellis." On the same day "she was burnt upon the Castle Hill with great commiseration of the people, in regard of her noble blood, of her husband, being in the prime of her years, of a singular beauty, and suffering all, though a woman, with a man-like courage; all men conceiving that it was not this fact (the charge of poisoning the King), but the hatred the King carried to her brothers." The English ambassador wrote that Lady Glamis was put to death "as I can perceyve without any substantial ground or proyf of mattir." On the day after her trial her husband, Archibald Campbell of Skipnish, in trying to escape from Edinburgh Castle, fell from the rocks and was killed. Lady Glamis's son, the seventh Lord Glamis, at the age of sixteen years, and his brother George were imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle. There they were compelled to witness the agonies of their clansmen, who were put to the torture of the rack in the vain attempt to extort from them words which should implicate their mother. Lord Glamis was condemned to death and his estates forfeited. The 150 execution, however, was deferred, and he was kept a close prisoner in Edinburgh Castle.1 King James took instant possession of the estates, and busied himself in distributing outlying portions of them to the favourites of his Court. The castle and barony, however, he retained for his own use, and he and his Queen, Mary of Lorraine, lived there regularly during the remaining years of his reign. After his death, the young Lord Glamis was released, and immediately took steps to have his estates restored. Parliament rescinded his forfeiture. The Crown not only restored to Lord Glamis those portions of the estate which were still in its possession, but granted him the non-entry duties of his whole lands. These had been mostly gifted in parcels to little men, and now with the powerful backing, of his mother's family, whose forfeitures had also been rescinded, he quickly recovered his lost possessions. There only remained the Barony of Kinghorne. That had been gifted to the Treasurer, James Kirkcaldy of Grange, who, after the death of James V. in 1542, retained his post as Treasurer of Scotland. He had extracted from Lord Glamis, as a preliminary to the restitution by the Crown, a promise that he should retain his share of the plunder, and had subsequently conveyed the lands and Barony to his son William. This compulsion, Lord Glamis resented, and contemplated, indeed had actually taken steps, to reduce the Crown Gift to Grange, when further proceedings were rendered unnecessary by the forfeiture 1. See "Scots Peerage." 151 of the Treasurer's son for his share in the slaughter of Cardinal Beaton.1 Queen Mary of Lorraine, securing the gift of Kirkcaldy's forfeiture, made over her rights therein, so far as relating to the Barony of Kinghorne, to Lord Glamis for the sum of 2000 merks. The letter of discharge, bearing her signature, is in the Charter Room at Glamis Castle. So ended the "Naboth's Vineyard," which seemed to have such a weird fascination for King James V. VI. THE "PLACE OF GLAMMISS" (GLAMIS CASTLE) IN THE JACOBITE RISINGS. The years 1715 and 1716 were memorable in the annals of Glamis Castle. The second Jacobite rising often talked of with bated breath by lovers of the old regime, and eagerly looked for and expected, was now an accomplished fact. John, fifth Earl of Strathmore, and his uncle, the Hon. Patrick Lyon of Auchterhouse,2 took a leading part in the movement, and the latter was present on the Braes of Mar, 9th September 1715, when the standard of King James VIII. was raised. With his relative, the Earl of Aboyne, he brought in the men of Aboyne, who with the Panmure contingent were styled the "Panmure Highlanders." When the chosen leader of the rising, the Earl of Mar, came to Perth in September 1715 with the 1. See "Scots Peerage." 2. Auchterhouse had been given him as his patrimony. 152 forces raised by him in support of the cause, he was joined by the young Earl of Strathmore at the head of a battalion of Foot, which he had raised in Glamis and the surrounding district, and which was known as the "Strathmore Regiment." This corps had been trained at Glamis Castle by Lord Strathmore himself, who, young though he was, proved himself to be an ideal commander, and it was included in the force sent by Mar to join Lord Kenmure and the Earl of Nithsdale in the south of Scotland. Macintosh of Borlum was given the command. At Burntisland, Macintosh devised a stratagem to enable his men to cross the Firth of Forth safely. He left a few soldiers at Burntisland to make a pretence or a feint of crossing, while he himself with the large body of his troops marched along the Fife coast, and embarked them in boats at various places. The English vessels did not realise that they had lost their chance until the greater part of the men of Borlum's force got safely across. Four companies2 of the Strathmore regiment were among the number. They now attacked the remaining part of the flotilla, and about two hundred of the Jacobite force, with Lord Strathmore among them, were obliged to take refuge in the Isle of May, where they 1. Tine Regiment was three hundred strong. 2. The following is a list of Officers of these four companies: William Douglas, Capt. John Burnes, Lieut. William Miller, Capt. Patrick Douglas, Ensign. John Scremger, Capt. Hugh Kerr, Ensign. John Balfewer, Capt. Alex. Magiven, Ensign. William Lyon, Lieut. Andrew Ramsay, Ensign. Alexander Murray, Lieut. Henry Ogilvey, Ensign. Alexander Orrack, Lieut. Will. Henderson, Quar. Ma. See "History of late Rebellion," by Patten, 2nd edtn, 1717. p.155. 153 remained for a few days. When opportunity was favourable these latter managed to regain the Fife coast and eventually returned to Perth. Shortly afterwards the battle of Sheriffmuir took place (12th November 1715). Lord Strathmore, at the head of Lord Tullibardine's Regiment, marched on the left wing of the Jacobite army. He and his uncle, the Hon. Patrick Lyon, were slain in the course of the fight. The Master of Sinclair in his memoirs of the Insurrection describes his death thus: "On our left the brave younge Strathmore was killed after being, wounded and taken. . . . When he found all turning their backs, he seized the colours, and persuaded fourteen or some such number to stand by him for some time, which drew upon him the ennemie's fire, by which he was wounded, and goeing off was takne and murder'd by a dragoon, and it may be said in his fate that mill-stone crusht a brilliant. He was the younge man of all I ever saw who approached the nearest to perfection . . . and his least qualitie was that he was of a noble, ancient family, and a man of qualitie." It is said that when Argyll and his aide-de-camps rode over the field of battle the next day, they encountered a soldier guarding faithfully the body of an officer who had been slain. The body was that of the Earl of Strathmore, and the soldier was a faithful servant of his family. The old retainer was asked "wha's that man there?" The answer was sadly laconic yet pathetically true "He was a man yesterday." 154 Two months later, when the Chevalier de St. George himself, the "richtfu' lawfu' King," arrived at Glamis,1 the shadow of death still hung, around the ancient towers, and cast a gloom over what would have otherwise been an occasion of great rejoicing. In 1745 the quiet "indwellers" in Glamis were once more roused to excitement by the news that the 1. The Earl of Mar sent out a circular letter from Glamis Castle regarding the Prince, that the affections of the people might b gained, and that they might be roused to active service in his behalf. It ran as follows:- "Glames, Jan. 5th 1716. I met the King at Fetteresso, on Tuesday Sen 'night, where we staid till Friday, from thence we came to Briechin, then to Kinnaird, and yesterday here. The King design'd to have gone to Dundee to Day, but there is such a fall of snow, that he is forced to put it off till to morrow, if it be practicable then; and from thence he designs to go to Scoon. There was no haste in his being there sooner, for nothing can be done this season, else he had not been so long by the way. People everywhere, as we have come along, are excessively fond to see him, and express that Duty they ought, without any compliments to him, and to do him nothing but justice, set aside his being a Prince, he is really the finest Gentlemen I ever knew. He has a very good Presence, and resembles King Charles a deal. His Presence, however, is not the best of him; He has fine Parts, and dispatches all his Business himself with the greatest of exactness. I never saw anybody write so finely. He is affable to a great degree, without losing that Majesty he ought to have, and has the sweetest temper in the world. In a word, he is every way fitted to make us a happy people, were his subjects worthy of him. To have him peaceably settled on his Throne is what these Kingdoms do not deserve; but he deserves it so much that I hope there's a good Fate attending him. I am sure there is nothing wanting to make the rest of his subjects as fond of him as we are, but their knowing him as we do, and it will be odd, if his Presence among us, after his running so many hazards to compass it, do not turn the hearts, even of the most obstinate. It is not fit to tell all the particulars, but I assure you he has left nothing undone, that could be, to gain everybody, and I hope God will touch their Hearts. I have reason to hope we shall very quickly see a new Face of Affairs abroad in the King's Favour, which is all I dare commit to paper. - MAR." (See Patten's "History of the Rebellion," p.221). 155 young chevalier, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, had come to fight for his father's kingdom, and to claim it once more for his ancient name and race. In depth of historic interest the third Jacobite rising excelled the two previous attempts. The hearts of the Scottish people seemed to have been more profoundly stirred than they had been. The whole campaign aroused a wider sympathy, evoked a nobler patriotism and a more heroic courage, than had been manifested before. The chevalier, by his kingly grace and bearing, and by that mysterious and indescribable charm with which all the royal race of Stewart seemed to fascinate those who had the privilege of meeting them, attracted many followers to his banner. Glamis with its memories of a thousand years could not be still. A number of the inhabitants of the parish left their peaceful homes to fight for the "King of hearts." Some found themselves with the regiment of Lord Ogilvie, that beau-ideal of a cheiftan, whose person seemed to be the embodiment of all the knightly graces, as the motto on his sword, formerly preserved at Cortachy, expresses: "The man who feels no delight in a gallant steed, a bright sword, and a fair ladye has not in his breast the heart of a soldier." Glamis, however, did not experience the gratification which the visit from Prince James had caused in 1716. Prince Charlie did not come, but the Duke of Cumberland,1 his great opponent, rested here with his army when on 1. The Strathmore family, though not engaged in this Rising, continued to be strongly Jacobite in sympathy. So unwelcome a guest was the Duke of Cumberland that orders were given, after his departure, to take down the bed in which he slept. 156 his journey north. It is said that the men of Glamis who had followed the young chevalier, on the approach of "Butcher Cumberland," fled to the Grampians and other parts of the Highlands, where they remained until the storm of war and vengeance had passed. Soon the parish settled down to its quiet rural routine, but as long as sentiment and the love of romance are wrought into the fibre and character of our nation, the charm of the Stewarts will live, the memory of them will never fade. The following is a list of men of Glamis who took part in the rising of the "Forty-five",1 It was furnished by the Supervisor of Excise of the district, in obedience to a general letter issued on 7th May 1746. The list is imperfect, however, and probably there were many more in the parish who took part in the "last burst of chivalry" this country has seen. It was not the fault of the Government if the numbers stated were incorrect, as circulars had been sent to all the parochial clergy desiring them to send in lists of all in their respective parishes who had not been engaged in the late "wicked and unnatural rebellion." The various officers of Excise, who made the returns of the so-called rebels, must consequently have been responsible for the deficiency. 1. Published by the Earl of Rosebery for the Scottish History Society. 157 [A List of Persons} 158/159 A LIST OF PERSONS FROM GLAMIS ENGAGED IN THE REBELLION OF 1745. TRANSMITTED T0 THE BOARD OF EXCISE BY MR. GEO. CRUICKSHANK, EXAMINER, OFFICIATING AT DUNDEE. 7TH MAY 1746. Name. Designation. Abode. Acts of Rebellion and Circumstances. Where they are at present John Arrat Charles Baillie Andrew Chalmers Arch. Cuthbert Alex. Clark John Clark Thomas Crighton Peter Doctor John Deuchars Alex. Ellis Andrew Gray William Gammack Wm. Hutcheson Wm. Horn Alex. Johnston David Low Wm. Livieth John Lawson John Livieth John Laird John Miller James Mill James Miles Thomas Munie John Meal John Ogilvy John Ogilvy James Rea Alex. Rough John Robertson Charles Scott John Shunger Wm. Taylor Charles Taylor Wm. Watson Alex. White Thomas Volumn Gentleman Town Baillie (Baillie of the Baron's Court of the Town of Glammiss) Ploughman Ploughman Ploughman Ploughman Ploughman Ploughman Ploughman Labouring servt. Weaver Clerk (Factor for the Earle of Strathmore) Labouring man Labouring man Labouring servt. Labouring man Labouring man Labouring man Labouring man Workman Ploughman Ploughman Ploughman Ploughman Ploughman Farmer of Roughill Servant Servant Servant Ploughman Ploughman Coachman Servant Servant Servant Servant Faffirty Glamiss Glammiss Balnamoon Newtoun of Glammiss Thorntoun Glammiss Glen-Ogilvy Glen-Ogilvy Glen-Ogilvy Glammiss Glammiss Cossens Holemill Glammiss Glammiss Hayston Arnyfoul Hayston Glammiss Glammiss Glammiss Glammiss Cossens Newton of Glammiss Lochmill Roughill Glammiss Glen-Ogilvy Thorntoun Glammiss Glen-Ogilvy Glammiss Glammiss Glammiss Clippit-hills Cossins Was Lieut. In the rebel army and burned the books and papers in the Customs House at Montrose Accepted of a Captain's Commission from the rebels, but retracted Carried arms in the rebel army, hired by the country Carried arms in the rebel army, hired by a countryman do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. Carried arms as a volunteer in Lord Ogilvie's 2nd battalion Entertained the rebels, drunk the Pretender's health, &c., consented to and privitly assisted in ringing the bell on the anniversary of the Pretr. son's birthday Carried arms with rebels for a countryman who was obliged to find them a man do. do. do. do. do. do. and go himself do. do. do. do. do. do. Carried arms as a volunteer in Lord Ogilvie's 2nd battalion Carried arms in the rebel army being hired by a farmer in his stead do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. Acted as Captain in Lord Ogilvie's regiment Carried arms as Lieut. In Lord Ogilvie's regt., oppressed the country by raising men and money Carried arms in rebel army, being hired by another to serve his room do. do. do. do. Entertained the rebels at his house and assisted in ringing the bell on the Pretr. son's birth night Carried arms with the rebels, being hired by another in his room Carried arms in the rebel army, enlisted himself Served as a volunteer, and continued to the last Employed and hired by the country to carry arms in the rebel army do. do. do. do. Fled At home Fled the country do. do. do. do. Not known do. do. do. At home Not known do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. Lurking Not known do. do. do. Prisoner Not Known do. do. do. do. do. David, Lord Ogilvy, who raised the "Ogilvy Regiment" in the Rising, and in which most of the Glamis men enlisted, was born in 1725. He was the son of the fourth Earl of Airlie. In his account of the Regiment, the historian1 states that "On the arrival of Prince Charles at Perth on his southward march, Lord Ogilvy, with all the Jacobite fervour of his race, waited upon His Royal Highness to pay his respects and offer his assistance. The Prince received him very graciously, and appointed him Lord-Lieutenant of Forfarshire, when he returned home to raise troops and money. Although his Lordship's father did not take an active part, he encouraged his son, and tradition has it that he even sold the silver plate and family jewels to support the Cause. "Having raised a body of fully 300 men, Lord Ogilvy proceeded with them to join the Prince at Edinburgh, arriving there on Thursday, 3rd October, twelve days after the battle of Gladsmuir. His Lordship having received from His Royal Highness a Lieut. Colonelcy for Sir James Kinloch, despatched him back to Forfarshire to raise a second battalion. "Prince Charles appears to have immediately held Lord Ogilvy in high respect, as, on forming his Privy Council before leaving, Edinburgh, his Lordship was appointed a member, and during the subsequent campaign His Royal Highness often attached himself to the Angus Regiment. On the 1st November the Highland Army left Edinburgh 1. Alexander Mackintosh. 161 on its march into England, and reached Moffat on the 6th, where it rested for one day. "Lord Ogilvy accompanied the Army into England, assisting in the siege and capture of Carlisle, and was among those of the Prince's Council who, on reaching Derby, fully realised that they had been misled as to the promised English support, and consequent futility of the incursion, and therefore successfully advocated returning to Scotland. In the retreat, Lord Ogilvy and his Regiment arrived at Stirling on the 8th January 1746, where he was joined by the Second Battalion of 400 men, under Sir James Kinloch. With the completed Regiment, His Lordship shared in the victory at Falkirk, being placed second on the right in the second column. "It being determined to retire beyond the Grampians, his Lordship and his men left Stirling on the 1st February, and on arriving at Perth took the route through Forfarshire, where he rested from the 4th till the 11th, in order to allow the men to visit their homes, and raise recruits. He then marched across the hills by Braemar, and rejoined Lord George Murray's forces on the 18th February. Lord Ogilvy and his Regiment took part in the attempted surprise on the Duke of Cumberland at Nairn on the 15th April, and next day in the defeat at Culloden. According to Lord Elcho, who was present, the Angus Regiment was placed on the right of the Second Division, and immediately behind the Atholl and Cameron men. Here was the main attack, the onslaught of these regiments being terrible. In the 162 words of Mr. Chalmers, the historian: 'Notwithstanding that the three files of the front line of English poured forth their incessant fire of musketry - notwithstanding that the cannon, now loaded with grapeshot, swept the field as with a hailstorm - notwithstanding the flank fire of Wolfe's Regiment - onward, onward, went the headlong Highlanders, flinging themselves into, rather than rushing, upon the lines of the enemy, which indeed they did not see for smoke, till involved amid their weapons. All that courage, all that despair could do was done.' At this moment Lord Ogilvy ordered his Regiment to advance, gallantly leading it, but after delivering a well-directed volley which told, noticing the other regiments giving way, and realising the day was lost, his Lordship, wisely counselling his men to stick together for defence, marched them off the field. Unquestionably this movement saved many lives, the enemy not daring, to pursue such a compact body; the loss sustained, so far as known, being only nine killed, two wounded, and forty-three prisoners. "A large proportion of the retreating force made for the Bridge of Failie, Upper Strathnairn, where, after parting with the Prince, the Forfarshire Regiment proceeded to Ruthven in Badenoch, where His Royal Highness had given orders to assemble and wait instructions. Here, after staying for a day or two, the Prince sent word that he intended going to France, and for every one to 'seek the means of escape as best he can.' During his stay Lord and Lady Ogilvy (for her ladyship accompanied her 163 husband) resided at the house of Mr. Gordon of Killihuntly, near by. There being now nothing but dispersion, his Lordship, again advising, his men to remain together until they reached home, marched them across the mountains between the shires of Inverness and Aberdeen to Balmoral, where they rested for one night, then up Glenmuick, and over the Capel into Clova. This place they reached on the evening of the 20th April 1746, or four days after Culloden, and next day his Lordship dismissed them with many sad good-byes. "Escape from capture being now the sole object, Lord Ogilvy arranged to keep in touch with several of his co-patriot neighbours until a way of escape could be secured. This was soon accomplished by Alexander Stewart, merchant, Dundee, who, although not in arms, zealously aided the Insurgents. Stewart secretly engaged and victualled a vessel owned and commanded by Captain Wemyss, of Broughty Ferry, near which it was lying, and three weeks after Culloden, his Lordship, along with the following gentlemen, embarked overnight, and in safety reached Bergen, Norway, viz.:- Thomas Blair of Glasclune; Alexander Blair, writer, Edinburgh; Robert Fletcher, Jun., Balinshoe; David Fotheringham, merchant, Dundee; James Grahame of Duntrune; David Hunter of Burnside; Alexander Johnstone, silversmith, Dundee; John Ogilvy of Inshewan; David Ogilvy, merchant, Coul; Thomas Ogilvy, Inverquharity; Henry Patullo, merchant, Dundee; and -- Sandilands, Jun., merchant, Bordeaux, France. For this kindly act Captain Wemyss 164 and his crew were arrested and imprisoned on their return to Dundee. "On landing at Bergen they were immediately seized, and confined in the castle there, at the instigation of the English Government, but after a short time were liberated, and made their way to France. There they received a kindly welcome, Louis XV. honouring Lord Ogilvy with a commission to raise a regiment of his refugee countrymen for the French Service, thus providing a living for many of the distressed. This regiment was named after his Lordship, and consisted of twelve companies. Besides thus giving employment, the French King very kindly bestowed handsome gratuities upon many of the exiles, Lord Ogilvy included. "On the death of his father, the Earl of Airlie, in 1761, Lord Ogilvy succeeded to the title. His Lordship remained in the service of France till 1778, having risen to the rank of Lieutenant- General, and created a Knight of St. Lewis by the French King. In that year King George III. granted the Earl a free pardon, and the restoration of his estates when he returned to Scotland, and again occupied the ancestral home of Cortachy Castle. Although known as the Fighting Laird, his Lordship quietly spent the remainder of his life in peace, interesting himself in improving his estates, bringing the knowledge acquired in France into requisition, and seeing to the well-being of his tenantry." Lady Ogilvy, wife of Lord Ogilvy, was captured and imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle. By the help of Archibald Hart, a merchant in Edinburgh, she 165 escaped to London. Dressed as a sick gentleman going away for his health, she set out in a chaise belonging to Mr. Hart, who brought her safely to the great city. She rejoined her husband in 1748 in France. She died in 1757 in that country at the early age of thirty three. An autograph letter of Archibald Hart is in the possession of the writer. It refers to the rising, and runs as follows: "Dr. Willie Fortune I believe has resolved that I never am you to see. London afairs at present are so situated that I cannot venture to move. Saturday last we were alarmed that the young chevalier was at Perth that night tho we have heard since that he was at the Blair of Athole Friday last. I believe he may be at Perth this day. Things are at present here in disorder and no such thing as money paid, and its believed when he draws a little nigher the banks will retire to the Castel, therefor altho these bills that I drew on you last be presented don't accept them till further orders because if this be the case that the banks retires I'll not can remitt you which might put you into some difficulties which I would not willingly doe, but I am to write these gentlemen to this purpose, so I suppose they will not present them till further orders. I don't know what the event of this may be but it does not look well at present. Mrs. Hart and all friends join in there love to you, and I am, Dr. Sir, your most affectionate Brother, and very humble servant, Archibald Hart. Edinburgh, Septe. 3rd, 1745. "P. S. My uncle Mr. Campbell told me that he was to pay you on my accot £27: odd money, which 166 please put him in mind of; tell him also that I have got a Commission for my brother Daniel in Sir Rt. Monroe's Regt. - To Mr. William Innes, Merchant, London." James Arrat, of Faffarty, Glamis, who enlisted in the Ogilvy Regiment, was proprietor of the small estate of Fafferty, of about 230 acres which, before the Reformation, belonged to the Bishop of Dunkeld. Mr. Arrat was a rigid Roman Catholic and strong Jacobite. He was appointed an Ensign in the Regiment. He took an active part in raising equipment, as we find Sir John Wedderburn of Blackness, while a prisoner in London waiting his trial, stating as a plea in his defence of compulsion that "there will be no difficulty in proving Fafferty seizing his horses, and threatening more." What became of Arrat after Culloden is not known, but subsequently he was so reduced in circumstances as to be compelled, in 1758, to dispose of his heritage to the Earl of Strathmore. On the estate were a Catholic Chapel and priest's house which, after Culloden, were destroyed by a party of Dragoons stationed in the district, and probably the laird's house had then also perished.1 "Alexander Bower of Meathie, and Kincaldrum, Inverarity, who, as Lieutenant, was in the same Company as Arrat, was also a Catholic, and was travelling on the Continent when the news reached him of the arrival of Prince Charles Edward in Scotland. He immediately returned home, and, raising his tenantry, joined the Forfarshire Insurgents, 1. See "Forfarshire or Lord Ogilvy's Regiment." 167 being appointed a Lieut. in Lord Ogilvy's Regiment. After the war was over, and the disbandment at Clova, Lieutenant Bower, in company with his cousin, Colonel Kerr of Graden, Roxburgh, returned to Kincaldrum, where Mrs. Bower and her boy was. During the day time the refugees took to hiding in the neighbouring hills, and at night returned to Kincaldrum House for food and shelter. One night after supper a party of Hessian Dragoons in search of fugitives surrounded the house, and while part remained outside, the officer and others entered. At this time all the lower part of the house had iron stanchioned windows, so, on hearing the noise, Colonel Kerr made for one of these, which he knew had a loose bar, through which he went, only to find himself in the hands of two of the enemy, who took him prisoner. Lieutenant Bower sought refuge in a secret closet off a bedroom, the aperture to same being covered by an old cabinet. In their search the soldiers removed this article, and discovered Bower. He gallantly attempted to defend himself, it is said with a poker, and knocked some of the enemy down, but, after being severely wounded, was captured. He was removed first to Dundee, and then to Perth; and in a narrative written by the Lieutenant's grandson, Mr. Graham Bower, it is stated that, 'having a fine head of hair, the Dragoons knotted it to one of their horse's tails, and dragged him in this way for about two miles, to a place called Cothiewards (Cuttywards), near Findrick, where a poor man, of the name of Saunders Kinear, was holling, 168 (digging up) Broom, who, on his bended knees, interceded for his master, saying "If you will only put the gentleman on a horse, I will gi'e you a' the siller I hae," which amounted to ten Pounds. The relief seems to have come too late, however. He was then mounted behind a trooper, carried to Dundee, from there to Perth Prison, where it soon pleased God to relieve him from his tormentors, having expired from the brutal treatment he had received.' "Mrs. Bower, although in poor health, followed her husband to Perth, where learning that the Duke of Cumberland was at Stirling Castle, she went thither and interceded for her husband's life. At last the Duke consented to grant it, on condition that he would leave the country and never return; and he gave her passes for her husband, herself, and their only child, a boy about six years of age. Mrs. Bower immediately returned to Perth, but only to find her husband had meantime died of his wounds and cruel treatment. The sight of the dead body so terribly shocked her that she fell forward over the corpse and expired. The two bodies were placed in one coffin and brought to Kincaldrum House, where they lay some days previous to interment. A strange story is told in connection with this part of the tragedy. James Bower, a relative, being anxious to secure the property of the deceased insurgent, bribed the soldiers stationed in the district to kill the infant son, he being then the next-of-kin; but the nurse, when she heard them coming, hid the boy in the coffin containing his 169 dead parents, covering him with the pall, and so escaped detection. "The bodies were buried in the Chapel-yard on the farm of Easter Meathie, which then belonged to the Bowers of Kincaldrum. "Lieutenant Bower married in 1736 Margaret St. Clair of Rosslyn, the last of the real St. Clairs of that estate near Edinburgh, and their only child and heir was Alexander St. Clair Bower, who so narrowly escaped. For better safety he was sent to France in the custody of Miss St. Clair, an aunt, where, on the advice and influence of Lord Ogilvy, he was placed in the Scots College in Paris."1 Robert Fletcher, yr. of Ballinshoe, was another officer in the Ogilvy Regiment. "He was a descendant of Sir Alexander Fletcher of Innerpeffer. The property was acquired in 1633. Fletcher shared in all the vicissitudes of Lord in France, and died in 1782. He was a grandson of Elizabeth Lyon of Wester-Ogil, and he married a Lyon of the same famous cadet family of Glamis. Patrick Lyon of Ogil, another cadet of the Glamis family, was a Lieutenant in the Ogilvy Regiment, and the Reverend Robert Lyon, A.M. of the same family, who was an Episcopal clergyman in Perth, joined the adventure, under a strong religious sense of duty, and bore all his own expenses. He was tried, condemned, and executed at Penrith on 28th October 1746. Before starting for the place of execution Mr. Lyon administered the Sacrament to his fellow-sufferers. On the scaffold he conducted divine service, and read a long speech 1. See "Forfarshire or Lord Ogilvy's Regiment," by A. Mackintosh. 170 setting forth his reasons for joining the Rising, and declaring his unswerving attachment to the Jacobite Cause. He is said to have been the author of the following lines: 'God bless the King, I mean the Faith's Defender; God bless there is no harm in blessing the Pretender; But Who Pretender is, and Who is King - God bless us all! That's quite another thing.' "Patrick Lyon, mentioned above, paid a fugitive visit to his home after Culloden, and left the famous sword - which bears the following inscription - in the castle of Coul from which the Deuchars recovered it; 'Da Denquhyre his swerde at Bannockburn. I served the Brus of quhilk the Inglis had . . . naryss.' " 1 The Reverend Robert Lyon was engaged to be married to Miss Stewart Rose, daughter of Bishop Rose, of Edinburgh. Her Prayer Book, bearing her signature, with a copy of Reverend Robert Lyon's last speech, are among the treasured possessions at Glamis Castle. 1. See "Forfarshire or Lord Ogilvy's Regiment," by A. Mackintosh. 171 172 173 LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. The Queen, Buckingham Palace, SW1. H.M. Queen Mary, Marlborough House, SW1. T.R.H. The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, York House, St. James's Palace, SW1. T.R.H. The Duke and Duchess of Kent, 3 Belgrave Square, SW1. H.R.H. The Princess Royal, 32 Green Street, W1. H.R.H. The Princess Louise (Duchess of Argyll), Kensington Palace, W8. H.R.H. The Princess Beatrice, Kensington Palace, W8. T.R.H. Prince and Princess Arthur of Connaught, Queen's Grove, NW8. The Lord Carnegie and Lady Maud Carnegie, 41 Princes Gate, SW7. H.R.H. Princess Alice and Major General The Earl of Athlone, Kensington Palace, W8. H.H. The Princess Helena Victoria, 78 Pall Mall, SW1. The Lady Louis Mountbatten, Brook House, Upper Brook Street, W1. The Most Rev. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Lambeth Palace, SE1. The Most Honourable The Marquess of Aberdeen and Tamair, Lord Lieutenant of Aberdeenshire, Haddo House, Aberdeenshire. The Right Honourable The Earl of Strathmore, Glamis Castle, Glamis. The Right Honourable The Countess of Strathmore, Glamis Castle, Glamis. The Right Honourable The Earl of Airlie (Lord Lieutenant of Angus and Lord Chamberlain to the Queen), Cortachy Castle, Kirriemuir. The Right Honourable The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, 7 Audley Square, W1. The Right Honourable The Earl of Shaftesbury, St. Giles's House, Dorset. 174 The Right Honourable The Countess of Shaftesbury, St. Giles's House, Dorset. The Right Honourable The Earl of Leven and Melville, Glenferness, Nairn. The Right Honourable The Dowager Countess of Airlie, Airlie Castle, Kirriemuir. The Lord Elphinstone, Carberry Tower, Musselburgh. The Lord and Lady Wigram, The Norman Tower, Windsor Castle, Berks. The Lord Forteviot, Dupplin Castle, Perthshire. Margaret, Lady Forteviot, Galloway House, Garlieston. The Lord and Lady Apsley, Petty France, Badminton. The Lord and Lady Somers, Eastnor Castle, Ledbury, Herefordshire. The Lady Constance Blackburn, Ellerton House, Grange Loan, Edinburgh. The Lady Maud Bowes-Lyon, Orchard Farm, Broadway, Worcester. The Honourable Sir Alexander Hardinge (Secretary to the King), St. James's Palace, SW1. The Lady Hardinge, St. James's Palace, SW1. Brigadier General Sir Hill Child (Master of the King's Household), Buckingham Palace, SW1. Colonel Sir Arthur Erskine (Crown Equerry), The Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace, SW1. The Lady Rose Leveson-Gower, Government House, Isle of Man. The Honourable Francis Bowes-Lyon, D.L., J.P., Ridley Hall, Bardon Mill, Northumberland. The Honourable David Bowes-Lyon, St. Paul's, Walden Bury, Hitchin, Herts. The Honourable Mrs. Adeane, 1 Dean Trench Street, Westminster, W1. The Honourable Margaret Bigge, 25 Connaught Square, London, W2. The Honourable Sir Hew H. Dalrymple, 24 Regent Terrace, Edinburgh. Sir Herbert Ogilvy, Baldovan House, Dundee. Sir Harry Hope, Kinnettles House, Forfar. Lady Don, Ardarroch, Dundee. Lady Robertson Nicoll, The Old Manse, Lumsden, Aberdeenshire. Lady May Abel Smith, Barton Lodge, Winkfield, Windsor, Berks. The Very Rev. Sir George Adam Smith, D.D., LL.D. (Chaplian to the King), Sweethillocks, Balerno. The Very Rev. C. L. Warr, C.V.O., D.D., LL.D. (Dean of the Chapel Royal and of the Order of the Thistle, Chaplain to the King), 63 Northumberland Street, Edinburgh. 175 The Very Rev. Principal Martin, D.D., LL.D. (Chaplain to the King), Edinburgh. The Very Rev. R. J. Drummond, D.D. (Chaplain to the King), 3 East Castle Road, Edinburgh. The Very Rev. John White, C.H., D.D., LL.D. (Chaplain to the King), 61 Partickhill Road, Glasgow. The Very Rev. L. Maclean-Watt, D.D., LL.D., Kinloch, Loch Carron, Ross-shire. The Rev. Professor Main, D.D., D.LITT. (Chaplain to the King), 8 The University, Glasgow. The Rev. Professor Fulton, D.D., 12 The University, Glasgow. The Rev. A. E. Swinton of Swinton, Duns, Berwickshire. The Rev. Alan C. Don, D.D., Lambeth Palace, London, SE1. The Rev. Maunsell Donald, B.D., The Manse, Kinnettles. The Rev. D. M. Bell, B.D., The Manse, Forfar. The Rev. Harry Rorison, The Parsonage, Kirriemuir. The Rev. Professor Soutar, D.D., D.LITT., The Orchard, 80 Banbury Road, Oxford. The Rev. J. Kirkland Cameron, HON.C.F., J.P., F.S.A.(SCOT.), Auchterhouse. The Rev. W. S. Snow, B.D., The Rectory, Burntisland, Fife. The Rev. George Veitch, Chestnut Cottage, Woodside, Coupar Angus. Mrs. Blair-Oliphant, Ardblair Castle, Blairgowrie. Mrs.William Younger, Harmeny, Balerno. Gavin Ralston, Esq., Glamis House, Glamis. Miss Ralston, Glamis House, Glamis. Thomas Innes, Esq., of Learney, Albany Herald, Learney, Aberdeenshire. W. S. Dickson, Esq., of Monybuie, 6 Circus Gardens, Edinburgh. Brigadier General Ogston, Kildrummy Castle, Aberdeenshire. Professor Alexander, 4 Clarendon Terrace, Dundee. Adamson, Mrs. E. K., Lavenham, Sussex. Aimer, George, Ex Bailie, Normanbank, Rankine Street, Dundee. Alexander, H. M., 44 Denton. Road, Twickenham, London. Alexander, Miss, Charleston, Glamis. Allan, James, 10 Lilybank Crescent, Forfar. Allardice, Dr., M.C., D.LITT., Vennel House, Forfar. Anderson, D. A., Ashton Works, Dundee. Anderson, George, Guthrie Lodge, Newburgh, Fife. Anderson, James, Braidwood, Grange Road, Highgate, London, N6. Anderson, Mrs, Isolation Hospital, Fraserburgh. Arderson, R. H., County Clerk of Angus, Ferryton, Forfar. 176 Angus and Kincardineshire County Library. Arnot, C. G. L., Castle Road, Weybridge, Surrey. Babington, Mrs, The Manse, Glamis. Bain, Thomas N., Royal Hotel, Forfar. Balfour, Robert S., 49 West High Street, Forfar. Ballingall, George, Esq., of Parkfield, Perth. Ballingall, W. G., Wolfhill House, Wolfhill, by Perth. Barrie, John, St. Colm's, Kirriernuir. Batchelor, Col. C., Craigmount, Strathmartine, Dundee. Baxter, Mrs, of Kincaldrum, Angus. Beazley, H. K., & Co., 19 Churton Street, London, SW1. Bell, E. L., 10 Barrack Street, Dundee. Berkeley, G. R., 43 Chester Square, London, SW1. Blackwood, Bailie, 21 North Tay Street, Dundee. Bowie, Mrs, Lochty House, Carnoustie. Boyle, Mrs.John S., Ardgowan, Shawlands, Glasgow, S1. Boyd, Wm., J.P., Claremount, Broughty Ferry. Brown, Miss Shirley S., 230 Grenview Blvd., Toronto 9, Ontario, Canada. Brown, Mrs, Overbow, Forfar. Bruce, James, Knockenny, Glamis. Burgess, G. C., M.D., Rosehill, Forfar. Buck, George, H.M. Custom House, Dundee. Burns & Harris Ltd., Nethergate, Dundee. Burt, William C., Magdalen Bank, Perth. Butler, Mrs. Dugald, 16 Dreghorn Loan, Colinton, Edinburgh. Caird, Henry W., Balone, Forfar. Calder, Miss Mary, Glamis Castle, Glamis. Cameron, Miss, Trinity, Duns, Berwickshire. Campbell, A. C., 11 Rosemount Place, Perth. Cardno, Wm. J., 20 Lyndhurst Terrace, Dundee. Carnegy, D. J., Jr., Mylnehall, Forfar. Carswell, Miss M. G., The Training College, Truro, Cornwall. Chamberlain, S., 332 Argyle Street, Glasgow. Christie, D. C., Lyndhurst, Taylor Street, Forfar. Cochrane, R. A., City Librarian, Perth. Cooper, Francis, A.R.C.A., College of Art, Dundee. Cornish Brothers, 37 New Street, Birmingham, 2. Cotton, Mrs. Stapleton, Dodbrooke Manor, Kingsbridge, S. Devon. Coutts, Fred. A., 85 Castle Street, Forfar. Coutts, Fred. T., Marlee, Robertson Terrace, Forfar. Crabbe, A. G., Glamis. Craig, G. Anderson, The Shieling, Forfar. 177 Craik, George, Thornbank, Lockerbie. Crawford & Co., King Street, Stirling. Crawford, Norman, Librarian, Arbroath. Croal, David, 31 Manor Street. Forfar. Crosher, Mrs. C. R., Charnwood, Melton Mowbray. Dalgety, A. C., Aviemore, Forfar. Davidson, David, Dunmore, 9 Baldovan Road, Dundee. Davidson, Dr. A. Fraser, 15 Ruskin Terrace, Glasgow, W2. Davidson, R., 272 Strathmartine Road, Dunder. Dempsey, Mrs.Jessic Johnstone, 125 Glenhead Street, Possilpark, Glasgow, N. Dickie, Miss, Blair Cottage, nr. Forfar. Dill, R. W., Ben View, Dundee Road, Forfar. Doig, W. L., 16 East High Street, Forfar. Don, Harry G., Pound Cottage, Silchester, nr. Reading. Don, William G., Maulesden, Brechin. Douglas & Foulis, 9 Castle Street, Edinburgh. Drummond, Mrs, Eskhill, Forfar. Duke, Mrs. S., Viewfield House, Arbroath. Dundee College of Art. Dundee Public Libraries. Easton, Mary D., 40a Castle Street, Forfar. Edinburgh Public Library, George IV. Bridge, Edinburgh. Edwards, David A., 9 Helen Street, Forfar. Elder, James, Estates Office, Glamis. Ewen, John T., Pitscandly, Forfar. Fairlie, Mrs., Kirkton, Monikie. Farquharson, Mrs., of Invercauld House, Braemar. Fenton, Dr. David, M.B., CH.B., D.P.H., Spring Mount, Pleasington, Blackburn. Fenton, James, Ex Provost, J.P., The Croft, Broughty Ferry. Ferguson, F.A., Town Clerk, Brechin. Fimister, T. P., 55 South Tay Street, Dundee. Findlay, Mrs. C.W., Ferryton Cottage, Forfar. Fisher, Miss, Matron, Forfar Infirmary. Fleming, Isabel M., Medical College, Moukden. Fleming, John F., Cherrybank, Forfar. Forfar Public Library. Fraser, _Miss, Netley Lodge, Inverness. Freebody, Miss E. D., 40 Fishergate, Preston, Lancashire. Gardiner, Mrs, Northfield, Brechin. 178 Gerrard, Mrs., 15 Dreghorn Loan, Colinton, Edinburgh. Gibb, Mrs. M. J., Buchanan, Hallgreen Castle, Inverbervie. Gilstrap Public Library, Newark-on-Trent. Given, W., Lunanhead, Forfar. Gordon, John S., Solicitor, Forfar. Gordon, Miss, Craig Rannoch, Torphins, Aberdeenshire. Gordon, Miss A. E., Craig Rannoch, Torphins, Aberdeenshire. Gordon, Mrs. Helen, Bridgend, Tannadice. Grant, F. Airth, 13 Albert Square, Dundee. Gray, D. Walker, 29 Nethergate, Dundee. Grimmond, Miss, Benchil, Broughty Ferry. Guild, Mrs.D. T., Craigowl, 149 Van-der-Walt Street, Pretoria. Guthrie, Colonel, Guthrie Castle, Angus. Guthrie, E. D., Heath Park, Blairgowrie. Harley, George, 130 Nethergate, Dundee. Hay, Miss Margaret, Olinda, Forfar. Hay, W. N., Ardloch, Forfar. Hendry, Mrs.John M., Bryans, Broughty Ferry. Holmes, W. & R., Booksellers, 3-11 Dunlop Street, Glasgow, C1. Hope, W. B., Rochedale, Stepps, Lanarkshire. Hourie, W. L., Union Bank House, Forfar. Houston, 23 Cleveden Drive, Glasgow, W2. How, D. P., Craigeassie, Tannadice, Forfar. Hunter, M.W., 10 Ormonde Avenue, Muirend, Glasgow. Jackson, George Erskine, w.s., of Kirkbuddo, Forfar. Jamieson, Misses, Rosebank, Forfar. Jamieson, Mrs, 19 Eglinton, Crescent, Edinburgh. Jamieson, Mrs. Fyfe, Ruthven, Meigle. Jarvie, J. Stirling, 4 Hay Street, Perth. Jobson, Misses, Westridge, West Ferry, Dundee. Johnston, James, 90 Dalkeith Road, Dundee. Johnston, Mrs, Kilmundie, Glamis. Kerr, Dr. Andrew, Eastbourne House, Forfar. Kerr, Mrs, Strathmore, Willaura, Australia. Kidd, William & Sons Ltd., 7 Whitehall Street, Dundee. Killacky, Mrs, Cross, Forfar. Killacky, W. Edward, Johannesburg, S. Africa. Kinnear, Mrs.Elizabeth, Rowanbrae, Forfar. Knox, Mrs.W. D. C., Colliston Castle, Arbroath. Larg, Robert J., Ex Bailie, J.P., F.S,A.(SCOT.), 2 Erskine Terrace, Maryfield. Dundee. 179 Leicester Public Library. Leslie, Mr. and Mrs. Robert G., 417 Strathmartine Road, Downfield, Dundee. Liverpool Public Libraries. Low, Miss, 23 Seafield Road, Broughty Ferry. Low, Mrs.Barbara, 48 Maule Street, Carnoustie. Low, Peter S., Alfriston, 91 Forfar Road, Dundee. Lunan, A. B., Edinburgh. Lyell, Miss, Logie, Kirriemuir. Lymer, Meryl W., 19 Wellington Crescent, Manchester 16. Lyon, Charles, Deanhouse, Kirriemuir. MacDougall, Miss S. M., 38 Dreghorn Loan, Colinton, Edinburgh. MacGillivray, Allister M., M.D., D.O.M.S., F.R.S.E., 5 Clarendon Terrace, Dundee. MacGregor, Miss Lysbeth, Whinfell, Wormit on Tay. MacGregor, Mrs, 8 Whitehall Street, Dundee. MacKenzie, J., Queen Anne's Mansions, St. James's Park, London, SW1. MacKinnon, J. A. R., Sheriff-Substitute, Thornlea, Forfar. Macrae, Farquhar, Monifieth. Maddocks, Mrs.Harry, Inversnaid Lodge, Inversnaid, by Stirling. Mann, Dr. J. Scott, East High Street, Forfar. Mann, J. R, Royal Hotel, Forfar. Marshall, C. H., S.S.C., 97 Seagate, Dundee. Martin, F. G., Carselyn, Forfar. Mathew, James, 18 Airlie Place, Dundee. Maxwell, Mrs., Ballindarg, Forfar. McCaig, R. W. L., Foreside of Cairn, Forfar. McGregor, James, 31 Glover Street, Arbroath. McInnes, Donald, The Gardens, Glamis Castle, Glarnis. McIntosh, Miss Marion Gordon Millar, North Lodge, Arnhall Gardens, Dundee. McIntyre, Mrs. H., Hi1den, Auchterarder, Perthshire. McNab, Jane M., 89 Albert Street, Dundee. McQueen, J. S., 27 Channel Street, Galashiels. Menzies, John, & Co., Ltd., Hanover Buildings, Rose Street, Edinburgh. Methven, J. Norman, of St. Martins, by Perth. Middleton, Misses, Baldarroch, Murthly. Middleton, Royan, 94 Queen's Road, Aberdeen. Midlothian Education Committee, Edinburgh. Millar, Miss E. A., Invertiel, Kirkcaldy. Millar, Miss Mary G., 44 West High Street, Forfar. Millar, W., Invermay Place, 134 Albert Street, Dundee. 180 Mills, John F., Publisher, Kirriemuir. Millikin, Miss, 9 Lilybank Crescent, Forfar. Montrose Public Library. Morgan, Andrew, Easter Denoon, Glamis. Mudie, George B., Skelmorlie, Dundee. Mungall, A. T., Ltd., North Road Garage, Forfar. Murdoch, Miss, Milton of Ogilvy, Glamis. Murray, Mrs, Bengarth, Forfar. Myles, Dr. David, 59 East High Street, Forfar. Nash, Walter, 42 Miller Street, Glasgow. Nairn, B. L., 13 Rockfield Crescent, Dundee. Neill, Miss, 42 Castle Street, Forfar. Neish, C. F. I, Tannadice, Forfar. Niven, Mrs., The Chanonry, Old Aberdeen. Norrie, James, High Street, Kirriemuir. Ogilvy, Iain, Esq., of Pityoulish, Aviemore. Oliver, Mrs.J. S., Kirkden, Letham, Forfar. Ormiston, A. W., 19 Castle Street, Forfar. Parsons, Major E. H. T., C.B.E., D.L., Carskiey, Southend, Argyll. Paterson, Miss V., 58 Palmerston Place, Edinburgh. Patullo, Miss, Eassie House, Eassie. Patullo, Mrs., Linross, Angus. Peacock, H. E, Ex-Provost, J.P., Glengate, Kirriemuir. Pearson, Mrs., Balmadies, Guthrie. Pentland, David W., Rosetta, Inverleith Gardens, Edinburgh. Petrie, Charles Don, 47 Milnbank Road, Dundee. Petrie, James, Sheriff Clerk, Forfar. Petrie, John B., 24 Princess Road, Regents Park, London, NW1. Phin, John, Lord Provost, Dundee. Porter, Alfred W., 29 Broxash Road, Clapham Common, London, SW11. Porter, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur, 1 Sackville Avenue, Glasgow, W3. Porter, James Victor, Mount Hatfield, Glasgow, W2. Porter, William V., 1 Sackville Avenue, Glasgow, W3. Prain, James, of Kincaple, by St. Andrews. Ramsey, Robert S., 55 West High Street, Forfar. Rea, A. H., 19 Maryfield Terrace, Dundee. Rees, Hugh, Ltd., 5 & 7 Regent Street, London, SW1. Reid, James, Maybank, Balmoral Road, Blairgowrie. Reid, Miss Alice A., Sommerville Park, Letham, Forfar. Reid, Miss Nita K., 193 Strathmartine Road, Dundee. 181 Reid, Wm., Hospitalshields, St. Cyrus. Robb, James N., Bowerbank, Park Road, Fairmuir, Dundee. Roberts, B. Thornes, Newtonmill, Brechin. Roberts, Mrs. G. B., 41 East High Street, Forfar. Robertson, John M., Caenlochan, Robertson Terrace, Forfar. Robertson, Miss, Seymour Lodge, Dundee. Robertson, R. D., 4 Forester Street, Dundee. Robertson, W. C., 156 East High Street, Forfar. Robbie, Mrs., Sheriff Park, Forfar. Robbie, Mrs. A., 19 Charleston, Glamis. Rodger, Robert T., Glencairn, Taylor Street, Forfar. Rodger, Thomas, 8o Broadway, Stratford, London, E15. Rose, G. F., Esq., of Auchernach, Strathdon, Aberdeenshire. Rothnie, Miss M., Colenso, Victoria Road, Ballater. Rough, Miss, Longbank, Kirriemuir. Roy, Misses, Magdalen Green, Dundee. Russell, A. L., College of Art, Dundee. Russell, Frank, Bookseller, Dundee. Scott, E. L., Dryburgh House, Lochee. Scott, Miss, Westfield, Forfar. Scott, Mrs. F. E., Kilnburn. Bank, Newport, Fife. Scott, J. B., Schoolhouse, Glamis. Shepherd, Miss M. J., Sydney, Australia. Shepherd, W., 39 Castle Street, Forfar. Sherrart & Hughes, 34 Cross Street, Manchester. Skinner, Robert T., J.P., F.R.S.E., 35 Campbell Road, Edinburgh, 12. Smith, Alex., 153 Merritt Street West, Welland, Ontario, Canada. Smith, Mrs, Invereighty Mill, Forfar. Smith, Mrs.Andrew, Whitchester, Duns, Berwickshire. Smith, Charles, Norwood, Forfar. Smith, D. K., Ardle Bank, 16 Bingham Terrace, Dundee. Smith, John A., Royal Bank House, Forfar. Smith, Miss Shiela Grant, Baronhill, Forfar. Smith, Wm. Ryle, Norwood, Broughty Ferry. Smyth, Bailie A. C., Kirklandbank, Forfar. Smyth, Jno., 6 Blinkbonny Crescent, Blackhall, Edinburgh, 4. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Queen Street, Edinburgh. Stark-Smith, Miss, 7 Glencairn Crescent, Edinburgh. Steel, Robert, Royal Bank House, Glamis. Steele, Miss H. M., 16 Westfield Park, Bristol. Stevens, B. F., & Brown Ltd., 28-30 Little Russell Street, London, WC1. Stevenson, Miss E. A., Loanhead, Trinity, Brechin. Stewart, Mrs., Temperance Hotel, Forfar. 182 Stewart, Miss R., 19 Blacket Place, Edinburgh, 9. Stirton, 47 Craigie Crescent, Perth. Stirton, Misses, 15 High Street, Perth. Strachan, James, 10 Cross, Forfar. Strachan, James A., High Street, Kirkcaldy. Strachan, J. N., Zoar, Forfar. Strachan, Miss Mary N., Zoar, Forfar. Sutte, Miss A. P., Ladies' Outfitter, Forfar. Swankie, J. C., 26 Johnstone Avenue, Dundee. Syme, Mrs., Toll House, Glamis. Tait, W. S. Maxwell, Averon, Forfar. Thorn, James, Schoolhouse, Kinnettles, Forfar. Thomson, David Couper, "Courier" Office, Dundee. Thomson, Jas., Rosebank, Forfar. Thurman, G. W, Bookseller, 17 Carter Gate, Newark. Torry, A. M., 22 Fullarton Crescent, Troon, Ayrshire. Truslove & Hanson, 14a Clifford Street, New Bond Street, London, W1. Walker, Mrs.Harry, Ardvrech, Dundee. Warden, Miss, Cowiehill, Forfar. Waterson, David, Whitehouse, Glamis. Watson, Gilbert L, Sinclair House Nethergate, Dundee. Wedderspoon, Mrs, Balkeerie House, Eassie. West, Richard W., Lochmill, Kirriemuir. Wheatley, Mrs.B., Abercromby, Hope Cottage, Dreghorn Loan, Colinton, Edinburgh. Whitson, Mrs. Thomas J. M., Wheatlands, Forfar. Whyte, Mrs. A., Mount Feredith, Forfar. Whyte, Mrs. W. P., Hatton, Eassie. Whyte, James, Hayston Cottage, Glamis. Whyte, John S, Lilybank, Forfar. Whyte, William, Town, Clerk, Forfar. Widgery, Mrs. M. A., Ethelbank, Forfar. Winter, David & Son, Shore Terrace, Dundee. Wishart, R. T., M.A., B.L., J.P., 7 Crawfurd Road, Edinburgh. Wood & Son, High Street, Perth. 183 Printed in Forfar by W. Shepherd.