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Statistical Accounts for the Parish of Tealing
in Angus (or Forfarshire), Scotland
Years 1791-99 also 1836 ( and later, 1950-68).

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YEAR 1791 - 99  - Page 92 - NUMBER XII 

PARISH OF TEALING.

(COUNTY OF FORFAR)

By the Rev. Mr JOHN GELLATLY.

Name, Situation, Extent, Surface, Soil, &c.

The name of the parish, (sometimes corruptly spelled Telin), is Gaelic, and signifies "a country of brooks or waters;" in which, indeed, this small district abounds.  It is situated in the presbytery of Dundee, and Synod of Angus and Mearns.  It lies along the south side of the Seidlaw (Sidlaw) hills, and is about 3 English miles from E. to W.; and from 2 to 1 N. and S. exclusive of two small farms which run out about 2 miles farther to the N. ; and a third entirely detached from it on the W.  It is is bounded on the W. by the parish of Auchterhouse; by those of Glammis  (Glamis) and Kinnettles on the N.; by Inverarity and Murrose (Murroes) on the E.; and on the S. by Mains and Strathmartine.  Its boundary on the N. is, for the greater part, a line running along the ridge of the hills just mentioned; on the S. the little water of Fithie.  The only hills in the parish are those of Seidlaw, the most considerable range in this county next to the Grampians.  Their tops are covered with heath; farther down, there is a . .

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. . good deal of broom, interspersed with patches of short grass, affording good pasture for young black cattle.  On the most easterly within this parish, is a beautiful plantation of firs, containing not less than 150 acres.  The summit of the highest, called Craig Owl (Craigowl), is found, by actual measurement, to be 1,100 feet above the plain; but the plain itself is full 500 feet above the level of the sea.  There is some grey slate, a good deal of moor-stone, and plenty of freestone.  The last, however, lies rather deep, and is some what difficult to he got at.

The cultivated part of the parish forms a plain gently declining towards the S.; of a soil light and gravelly towards the hill, rather fitter for pasture than tillage, black, deep and rich, sometimes inclining to clay in the middle; in the southern parts rather marshy, and mostly used as pasture, or natural meadow.  The great fault of the soil in general is an excess of moisture, owing partly to the vicinity of the hill, but chiefly to a stratum of clay, or rather clay and gravel, which runs immediately under the whole of it.  The air is rather moist and cold, yet not, upon the whole, unhealthful.  Sickly people from other quarters, sometimes find a summer's residence in it beneficial.  The rheumatism is the only distemper remarkably prevalent.  It may in part be owing to the nature of the air; but more probably to the damp earthen floors, and insufficient doors and windows of the greater part of the houses.

Population. - The population of this parish, according to the return made to Dr. Webster, amounted to  735 souls.  At present the number of fouls is 802; of families 158, persons to a family, 5.  The people live all of them in single houses, or in hamlets.  The increase in the population is to be ascribed to the erection of some new farms.  Several young people every year move to the southward, to . .

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. . learn the handicraft trades.  The annual average of births is 23; of marriages, 6; of burials, 18.  A woman, about 20 years ago, died here, at the age of 102.  There are 5 heritors, only one of whom resides.  The number of considerable farmers is 13.  Besides these, there may be 15 or 16 who possess from 10 to 30 acres each, and 1 or 2 horses.  The other great class of inhabitants is weavers, of which there are about 90 employed in the manufacture of coarse linens, which find a ready market at Dundee.  The flax is mostly foreign, and brought from the town just mentioned; but the far greater part of the yarn is spun in the parish.  Two families of Independents are the only dissenters from the Established Church.

Cultivation, Produce, &c. - Water has been long used as a manure in several parts of this county, and in other quarters of the kingdom; but as the subject of watering in general, is either altogether omitted, or but slightly mentioned by several of our best writers on husbandry, the subsequent account of the mode of watering land, adopted by Mr. Scrymsoure (Scrymgeour, Scrimgeour ) of Tealing, may be of some utility.

Mr. Scrymsoure waters no lands but such as are of a dry black or loamy foil.  Sand can receive but little benefit from water, as it cannot retain it for any time.  Clay is rather chilled, and (especially if the following season prove remarkably dry) too much hardened by it.  He does not water any field till it has been at least two years in grass.  Perhaps the year before it is broken up, is the most proper for the operation.  He finds the spring and autumn to be the fittest seasons for it.  If it be done in the spring, it should be before the grass has made any considerable advances, otherwise that crop will be apt to suffer by it.  If in autumn, it will he proper to draw off the water before the strong frosts let in.  Previous to the operation, it is necessary to spread the molehills . .

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. . with great care; as also with the foot, to press down the run of moles, so far as it can be discerned, as it is very apt to draw off the water in an improper direction.  The process commences with the drawing of water-furrows.  First, one broad and deep furrow is drawn in the crown, and from end to end of the head-ridge, on the highest side of the field.  This is to serve as a channel for the whole water you intend to make use of; and must he enlarged to a sufficient capacity with the spade, if it cannot be done with the plough.  If the ridges be level, another furrow is drawn parallel to the first, of equal length to it, and about 8 or 10 yards distant from it; and furrows in this manner are drawn down through the whole field.  The more the ground slopes, the more numerous these furrows must be; and care must always be taken, that the sward turned up by the plough, be thrown upon the lower side.

The water is then brought in at the highest corner of the field, and allowed to run in the channel or great furrow, for the breadth of 4, 5. or perhaps 6 ridges, according to the of the quantity of the stream.  It is then dammed up, when upon a small opening being made in the lower side of the furrow, opposite to the crown of each ridge, it pours itself in an equal manner into the field below.  It is soon intercepted by the next furrow, which serves not only as a channel for it, but as a dam-dyke to make it spread itself over a considerable part of the ground immediately above: When it begins to overflow, let small apertures be made in the furrow opposite to those mentioned before, and for the same purpose.  In this manner is it sent from furrow to furrow, till it reaches the lowest side of the field.  When the first 5 or 6 ridges, are done sufficiently, (that is, when they are saturated with the water, which may be known by the soft swelling of the ground, and . .

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. . the bright verdure of the grass), open the main furrow against other 5 or 6, and thus go along the whole.

When the ridges are much raised in the crown, as is still the case in many parts of the country, the furrows must be made in a different manner.  One communicating with the first or great furrow must be drawn down the crown of every ridge, unless it was cloven when laid down in grass.  From this again, at every 6 or 8 yards distance, others must he made, pointing obliquely down the sides of the ridge, till they meet and form an angle with others drawn in the same manner on the next ridge, taking care, as in the case above mentioned, that the plough throw the earth toward the lower side.  The water is then let down into the crown-furrows, and stopped at proper distances, so as to make it spread over both sides of the ridge.

It would he vain to attempt to give directions for every particular situation or surface of ground.  The great general rule is to draw your furrows in such a manner as to distribute the water equally and plentifully over every part.  By attending to this, and taking a careful survey of the field, an intelligent ploughman will very soon see what he has to do.  This also is to he attended to, after the water is brought upon the ground, and it will require a daily visit from a careful hand with a spade, to remove obstructions that may have dropt into the furrows; to place others properly; and to lead the water to such heights and dry spots as may have been overlooked.  Mr. S. sometimes employed a man for this sole purpose.  It is ever to be kept in mind, that it is only when made to stand or stagnate on the ground, that water operates to advantage: But whether this be by depositing on the soil such rich particles, as make the immediate food of plants, or by dissolving and macerating it; or which is most probable, . .

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. . by both these means, it is not necessary here to determine.  Indeed Mr. S. is inclined to think that it excites a proper fermentation, and the softness which the soil thereby acquires and preserves for a considerable time after, together with some other circumstances, seems to favour the supposition.

While the ground is under water, and even for some days after it is laid dry, no cattle of any kind should be allowed to set foot on it.  The water should be withdrawn rather gradually as otherwise, at least in a dry season, the grass will be a little apt to decay.  There is no striking difference between the effects of water which runs from pools, or soft water of any kind, and those of hard water immediately from the spring.  The former is, no doubt, preferable, but the latter will serve the purpose very well; and this seems to be agreeable to the experiments of Dr. Home. - Such is the method of watering land, which Mr. S. has followed with great success for nearly the space of fifty years.  There is one inclosure of his which, by this management, was brought from an exhausted state into good heart, and preserved an uncommon degree of fertility for, a succession of crops (one of them wheat) without fallow, lime or marl, and with very moderate assistance from dung.

With respect to the subject in general, it may be observed, that water not only serves to enrich the land for future crops of corn, but also generally secures an early and a large crop of grass the year in which it is applied, a matter of considerable importance, especially in a dry and backward spring.  Perhaps the only inconveniency attending it is its encouraging weeds of a certain kind, such as, thistles, ragweed, &c.; but this appears to be fully balanced by the destruction it occasions to weeds of another kind, . .

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. . such as commonly infest dry lands, but never thrive in water.

As to grain and other crops, it appears from several circumstances, that wheat was cultivated long ago to a considerable extent.  The culture of it was revived about 10 or 12 years since; when, after a very fair trial by a number of hands, it was entirely given up as unprofitable.  It was found to ripen late and to impoverish the soil.  Oats, barley, and a few hasting pease, are the only kinds of grain raised at present.  About 20 acres may he employed in the culture of flax.  Turnip and potatoes are raised on every farm, as are also clover and rye-grass.  Some yams have been planted within these few years, and the farmers seem to approve of them.

Of forest-trees the ash, fir, elm and beech, thrive well.  Oaks of a large size have been dug up in some mossy parts of the plain, and some that have been planted of late are sufficiently forward.  Fruit-trees grow much to wood, and it must he owned difficult to raise fruit: The difficulty however is sensibly decreasing, both the air and soil becoming more kindly by draining and planting the latter, particularly on the east.

The number of horses is about 200, about one third of which may he reared in the parish.  Black cattle being used in labour now, there are about 30 kept for that purpose; cows about 300.  With regard to sheep, it is remarkable, that about 25 years ago there were 12 small flocks in the parish, but that now there is not a single animal of the kind, save a few kept by a gentleman mostly for the use of his own family.  They were found destructive to the sown grass, and liable to perish for want of proper shelter.  Young black cattle have been, with great advantage, put in their place.

The. . 

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. . The number of arable acres is about 3,000.  The parish does much more than supply itself with the articles of oat-meal, barley, beef, ale, whisky and potatoes.  It may send to Dundee and other places,

Barley, 900 bolls, at 13s. 4d.	  600
Oat-meal, 500 ditto, at ditto,	   330
Calves for the butchers, 150,	   100
Coarse linens, to the value of	 4,000
Black cattle, 200,			 1,400
Hay, 10,000 stone,			   330
Whisky,				   200
Milk, butter and cheese,		   500
TOTAL					7,460

The people always sow as soon as the season and the condition of the land permit; it must, however, he owned that they reap rather later than some of their neighbours.  Harvest commonly begins about the 10th September.  There are about 280 acres in wood; amble inclosed, 550.  The land-rent is about 1,400.

Church and Stipend, School and Poor. - The church is of very ancient foundation, having been first built by Boniface, a legate or rather missionary from Rome, about A.D.690.  The present fabric, however, bears no marks of antiquity, and is but indifferent both as to style and condition.  A few fragments of carved stones seem to indicate that the original church was an elegant Gothic structure.  The stipend is about 2,000 merks Scots, exclusive of the manse and garden; as to the glebe, it would be, as it generally is in the country, rather a disadvantage, if the incumbent: had not been so lucky as to get a small farm.  The crown is Patron.

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The average number of scholars at the parochial school is only about 30, owing to the badness of the roads here in the winter-season, and the nearness of the skirts of the parish to the schools of the parishes around.  The quarterly payments are, for English, 1s. 6d.; for writing, 2s.; for arithmetic, 2s. 6d..  The schoolmaster's salary is 6 Sterling, and as session-clerk he receives 2, with about 1 more in perquisites for baptisms and marriages.  His whole emoluments, exclusive of a house, garden and small glebe of about an English acre, do not exceed 17 Sterling.  The number of constant poor is 4; of those who receive occasional supplies, 5.

The collections weekly, amount in the year, to 15.
The rent of seats belonging to the kirk-session, to 6.
The interest of (on) 200 Sterling,  to 10.

At present there is not one beggar.

Wages, &c. - Common wages of a day-labourer in husbandry, 8d. and victuals; in time of harvest, 1s. a man, and 9d. a woman, besides victuals.  About 40 years ago, wages were 6d. or 4d. and victuals.  As a child, in this part of the country, commonly finds employment at 8 or 9 years of age, a labourer has seldom, entirely at least, upon his hands above 3 children at once; that number he brings up without assistance.  The incumbent does not remember any man's asking assistance from the poors funds on account of the number of his children, however great, if he and they were in health.  If they are all well, his wife, besides taking care of her family, may earn a shilling a week by spinning; nay, provided the have a cow, which is generally the case, she may earn other two shillings in the same space by the sale of butter for 3 months in the year.  When a ploughman does not eat in the family, he is allowed for victuals 6 bolls and a half of oatmeal in the year, . .

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. . and a Scotch pint pint of milk a-day: Of the meal he can easily sell one boll after supplying himself.  The wages of a good ploughman, in general, are from 8 to 9 Sterling; annually; those of a maid-servant, including her bounties, as they are called, 3.  The prices of most kinds of provisions are double of what they were 30 years ago; oat-meal, however, has risen little more than one fourth.

Antiquities. - On the farm of Priestown, near the Glammis road, was discovered some years ago a subterraneous building of a very irregular construction.  (Possibly that referred to nowadays as Tealing Earth House or Souterrain). It was composed of large flat stones, without any cement, and consisted of 2 or 3 apartments, not above 5 feet wide, covered with stones of the same kind.  Some wood-ashes, several fragments of large earthen vessels, and one of the ancient hand-mills called querns, were the only things found in it.  It was mostly filled up with rich black earth.  A little westward from the house of Tealing, about 60 or 70 years ago, was discovered an artificial cave or subterraneous passage, such as is sometimes called by the country people a weem.  It was composed of large loose stones; was about 4 feet high, and as many wide, and was said to he traced up to a considerable length.  There were found in it a broad earthen vessel, and an instrument resembling an adze, both of them formed very neatly.  It still exists, but is covered up.  On the farm of Balckembeck (Balkemback) are several great round stones placed in a circle, evidently the remains of a Druidical temple.  In two sandy hillocks, within these 20 years, were found stone coffins, containing the skull and bones of a human body, with urns of earthen ware and ashes in them.  About 30 years ago there was found in the mires, a vessel somewhat resembling a kettle, about 2 feet in diameter, and 1 foot deep.  Its materials (brass mixed . .

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. . with some other metal) and its elegant shape, gave it much the appearance of an antique vase.  It was melted down, but its substance is still preserved in the form of 2 modern pots.  It is pretty plain from Tacit. in Vit. Agric. that the Romans were well acquainted with the country between the Grampian mountains and the frith of Tay.

Miscellaneous Observations. - The people, in general, are of the middle size.  They are exceedingly industrious, economical, rather plainer in dress than their neighbours, and not fond of a military life.  Generally they are charitable and very helpful to one another.  The condition of the people, for the most part, is rather more than tolerable, and they are apparently contented with it.  It might, however, be, in some measure, improved at no great expense, by making their cottages more comfortable and convenient, by raising better fences round their gardens, and introducing among them the culture of a few more nourishing vegetables.

The roads, in general, are bad, and have been much neglected.  An act, however, has been lately obtained for turnpikes throughout the county, and is already begun to be put in execution, but many people think they will prove too expensive.

The rent of the greater part of the open land is, about 9s. the acre.  Some, however, in the hands of the smaller tenants, gives from 15s. to 20s.  Inclosed ground lets from 15s. to 25s. according to its quality.  The farms are from about 100 to 150 acres; two farmers, however, possess considerably more.  The number of farms is rather increasing, and many cottars and subtenants have, within these 20 years, been put immediately under their lairds.  About . .

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. . one sixth of the arable land is inclosed, and all the farmers, it is believed, are convinced of the advantages of inclosing.  The fences are mostly of stone.

The people have improved much in dress and manners.  Among the men, instead of the bonnet and coarse homemade woollens, the hat, English cloth and cotton stuffs, are much worn, and almost every ploughman has his silver watch.  The women still retain the plaid, but among the better sort it is now sometimes of silk or lined with silk, and numbers of them, on occasions, dress in ribbons, printed cottons, white stockings and lasting shoes.  The labouring servants, formerly ignorant and lazy, are now generally skilful and laborious.  The wages both of men and women are doubled.  The Sunday's collection, and all the poors funds, are doubled.  The land-rent is more than doubled.  The farmers live in a much more sociable manner, and entertain with great hospitality.  Their houses, formerly covered with thatch, are now generally slated, and contain 2 floors.  There are some among them that still adhere to the old method of farming, yet a considerable number are well acquainted with the principles of the new husbandry, and practice accordingly.  They fallow; they manure with compost, marl and lime, some of the last brought even from England; and they crop judiciously.

The heritors, notwithstanding the disadvantage most of them lie under by residing at a distance, have all done something in the way of improvement.  As Mr. Scrymsoure of Tealing resides on the spot, his improvements have been extensive in proportion: He has, within these 30 years, planted about 260 acres of moor-ground with trees of different kinds; among which are many thousand larches, (a tree which thrives here beyond most others); inclosed and properly subdivided upwards of 300 acres of . .

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. . arable with good stone fences, and near 100 acres of pasture and meadow ground with hedge and ditch; erected 3 considerable new farms; let a number of convenient possessions to the manufacturers at very reasonable rents; doubled his rents upon the whole; and all without bringing any encumbrance upon his estate:  He keeps a considerable farm in his own hand, and excites his tenants to the practice of good husbandry by his own example.

The fuel commonly used is turf, which is brought from the neighbouring hills.  Coal is likewise transported from Dundee, and its use is greatly increasing.  There are from 40 to 50 ploughs made after the best form.

In this parish there are still some cottagers on almost every farm.  Farmers differ somewhat in their notions about employing them.  It is generally allowed, that turning off cottagers has an immediate tendency to make a scarcity of hands, and of consequence to raise wages; and that where there are no people of this description, it occasions one considerable inconvenience in the time of harvest, as then the corns must be cut down chiefly by strangers, who, in tedious harvests and rainy weather, are a heavy burden on the farmer.  Cottagers, after all, are generally in a poor and dependent situation, and perhaps little villages of manufacturers and tradesmen, immediately dependent an the landowner, might answer the purposes of the farmer equally well, would be happier in themselves, and of greater advantage to their country.

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378

PARISH OF TEALING.

PRESBYTERY OF DUNDEE, SYNOD OF ANGUS AND MEARNS.

THE REV. DAVID B. MELLIS, MINISTER. (Drawn up by the former the Rev. Peter Balfour.)

I. - TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY.

Name. - The appellation "Tealing" is said to be of Gaelic extraction, and is understood to denote a "country of brooks or waters." The parish lies along the southern slope of the Sidlaw hills.  The greater part of Craig Owl (Craigowl), the highest of the Sidlaw range, is situated in the parish of Tealing.  A line drawn nearly along the summits of the hills which have been mentioned, would divide the parish of Tealing from that of Glammis on the north.  The Fithie, a considerable burn, separates it from the united parishes of Mains and Strathmartine; on the south, and towards the east and west, it is bounded by the parishes of Murroes and Auchterhouse.  From the south-west to the north-east extremity of the parish, the distance is about seven miles, and its mean or average breadth may be estimated at about two miles.

Geology. - The geological phenomena which the district exhibits, are of a very common-place character.  In the more elevated parts of the parish, the rocks in general present a grey and somewhat slaty appearance and structure; in lower situations, freestone would seem to predominate; and there are occasional indications of that kind of whinstone which may be advantageously applied to the formation of roads.

In descending from the hills, the higher portions of the arable part of the parish are seen to be composed of a comparatively. .

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. . light gravelly soil; but when the descent has been continued, and the general character of the land been examined, clay and a dark loam blended in various proportions, and sometimes occurring almost without any intermixture, are found to be the prevailing ingredients.  The depth of the soil may be said to range from one to three feet, and the substratum is hard and cold, being either rock or till.

From the description which has been given, it might be inferred that the soil and climate would be naturally somewhat cold and humid; and in former times, a cold humidity seems to have been a distinguishing characteristic of both.  But the practice of draining having been for many years carried on very extensively, and with much judiciousness, the general. character both of the soil and climate has been greatly ameliorated.

In some of the more elevated and remote districts of the parish, grouse, black-cock, and deer may be found.

II. - CIVIL HISTORY.

Mr. Glass, the founder of the "Glassites," was minister of the parish of Tealing, at the time of his deposition; and another clergyman while in that situation, evinced a decided attachment to the views of the Independents; but, notwithstanding, there are now only one Glassite and one Independent in the parish.

Landowners. - The chief land-owners are, Mr. Scrymseour of Tealing, and Lord Douglas.  There are four farms which belong to four other heritors.

III. - POPULATION.

Population in -	1811,	779
		1821,	725
		1831,	766

In former times, the population seems to have been rather more numerous than at present.  Any change which has occurred in respect may be ascribed to the enlarging of farms, and to the tendency which the improved mode of manufacturing certain kinds of cloth unquestionably has to attract individuals to our populous towns.

There are in the parish, four or five hamlets, the united population of which may he estimated at 270; and the 500 inhabitants occupy the farmhouses, or reside in the cottages.

The yearly average of births for the last seven years may be said to be about 17; deaths, 8; and marriages, 5.

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The family of Mr Scrymseour of Tealing, is the only one of influence or importance, resident in the parish.

There are six proprietors of land of the yearly value of 50 and upwards.

The average number of children in each family is 5.  There is one fatuous person in the parish.

IV. - INDUSTRY.

Agriculture. -

 Number of Scotch acres either cultivated or occasionally in tillage  -	3,670
	"		which never have been cultivated, and which
			 remain constantly waste or in pasture, about -   300
	"		which might have been brought under culti-
			 -vation with advantage, about	- - - - - - - -	  167
	"		under wood, about - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -	  340

Larch and Scotch firs are the prevailing kinds of trees: but the management as to yearly thinning, periodical felling, pruning, and the like, does not seem to be deserving of commendation.

Rent of Land. - The average rent of arable land per Scotch acre in the parish, is 1: 15s.  The average rent of grazing is at the rate of 3 for an ox or cow grazed for the year.

Wages. - A common country labourer receives at the rate of 10s. in summer, and 9s. in winter per week.  A common farm-servant receives about 10: 10s. of yearly wages, 6 bolls of oatmeal, and 1 Scotch pint of milk per day.

Live Stock, &c. - The Angus-shire breed of cattle is in common use and although other breeds have been occasionally introduced, a preference has been, in general, ultimately evinced for the Angus-shire.

In former times, the water which descended from the hills, was allowed to diffuse itself over the surface of the ground, and the practice of irrigation was to a considerable extent carried on; but the water is now confined to rivulets or enclosed in drains; and this change has been productive of important advantages with reference to the soil, and also in regard to the mode of thrashing the corn.  The ground is now in general, comparatively dry, and there are about thirteen thrashing-machines in the parish, driven by water.  As to cropping, the prevailing mode is to subject any one field to the following rotation: green crop, barley with grass, hay crop, pasture, and afterwards oats.

The distance from Dundee being only five or six miles, a ready and eligible market is obtained for all kinds of agricultural produce, and, on the other hand, the transportation of manure from the town to the country in carried on to a great extent.

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As to the state of farm-buildings and enclosures in the parish, a favourable report may be given.  The general duration of leases is nineteen years, and a yearly money rent is, by the existing leases, payable.

There are some quarries in the parish, from which a good deal of pavement is extracted, and conveyed to Dundee.

Produce. -

Two fifths of 3,670 Scotch acres in corn crop, yielding at the
 average rate of 4 imperial quarters per acre, and estimating
 the quarter at 1: 5s. 					= 8,257
One fifth of 3,670 Scotch acres in a green crop; potatoes, and
 turnip, at 6 per acre,					=  4,404
One fifth of 3,670 Scotch acres in hay crop, at 3 per acre, 	=  2,202
One fifth of 3,670 Scotch acres in pasture, rating it at 3 per
 cow or full grown ox, grazed, or that may be grazed,
 for the season,						=  2,202
Probable value of the annual thinning, and periodical felling
 of plantations,						=    200
Produce of quarries,						=    300
								 --------
								 17,565

There are employed in the parish, in carrying on agricultural operations, about 140 work-horses.  And there are maintained about 280 milk cows, whose produce is very advantageously disposed of to the large and rapidly increasing population of Dundee.  But the annual value thereof is of course intended to be included in the value which has been assigned to the produce on which the cows subsist.

V. - PAROCHIAL ECONOMY.

The nearest market-town is Dundee, and the distance to it, as has been incidentally stated, is five or six miles

Means of Communication. - The turnpike road from Dundee to Aberdeen by Forfar intersects the eastern extremity of the parish, and the rail-road from Dundee to Newtyle passes through a portion of the parish near its south-west boundary.  The parish roads have been of late much improved, but they are still very susceptible of improvement.

Ecclesiastical State. - The parish church and the manse are nearly in the centre of the parish, and whether distance or population be considered, a more eligible situation for them could not have been chosen.  The church was built about the year 1806 - is in excellent condition, and contains sittings for 700 individuals.  The manse was built about the year 1803, and has undergone such alterations, and received such repairs as make it very comfortable.  The extent of the glebe is 5 acres, and its annual value may be estimated at 14.  As to the stipend, it is 10 chalders, and 330.  There is not any place for public worship in the parish except the Established Church, and all the inhabitants of the . .

382

. . parish, with the exception of four or five individuals, adhere to the establishment.  Divine service at the Established Church is well attended.  The average number of communicants is about 450.  The average amount of church collections yearly for religious and charitable objects, is about 50.

Education. - There are 5 schools in the parish, namely, 1 parochial school, and 4 schools in detached situations, for comparatively young children.  The parochial schoolmaster has the maximum salary, and his house and the school-room are in good condition.

The general expense of education per month or year is so reasonable as to place it within the reach of almost all.  The very few children whose parents cannot afford to pay for their education, have their school fees paid from those funds which are under the control of the kirk-session.  All the inhabitants above six or eight years of age can read, and a great majority of them are qualified to write.  The people in general are adequately alive to the benefits of education.  There is one parochial library, which is regarded by the inhabitants with a lively interest, and is flourishing accordingly.

Poor. - The average number of persons receiving parochial aid is 10, and the average sum allotted to each per month is 5s. or 6s.; but, besides those persons who receive statedly parochial aid, there are some to whom money, according to their circumstances, is occasionally given; and a considerable sum is annually expended on fuel and clothing.

The ordinary collections made in the church for the support of the poor, amount to about 30 per annum.  The other sources of revenue are the interest of money, mortcloth dues, &c.  There has not been remarked any tendency in individuals to throw themselves unwarrantably on the parochial funds, nor has there on the other hand been observed any particular delicacy in accepting aid from these funds, when it has been actually needed.  There are in the parish one inn and two ale-houses, but they do not appear to have produced to any considerable extent, a deteriorating effect on the morals of the people.

Fuel. - Coals (chiefly English) brought from Dundee, are in common use; but in certain districts of the parish, the quantities of broom and furze, which may be easily procured, tend to lessen considerably the annual expenditure of the people for fuel.

September, 1836.

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